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Magic: The Gathering Rules - 7. More Additional Rules (703-730)


Atraxa Magic The Gathering Commander


703. Turn-Based Actions


703.1. Turn-based actions are game actions that happen automatically when certain steps or phases begin, or when each step and phase ends. Turn-based actions don’t use the stack.


703.1a Abilities that watch for a specified step or phase to begin are triggered abilities, not turn-based actions. (See rule 603, “Handling Triggered Abilities.”)


703.2. Turn-based actions are not controlled by any player.


703.3. Whenever a step or phase begins, if it’s a step or phase that has any turn-based action associated with it, those turn-based actions are automatically dealt with first. This happens before state-based actions are checked, before triggered abilities are put on the stack, and before players receive priority.


703.4. The turn-based actions are as follows:


703.4a Immediately after the untap step begins, all phased-in permanents with phasing that the active player controls phase out, and all phased-out permanents that the active player controlled when they phased out phase in. This all happens simultaneously. See rule 502.1.


703.4b Immediately after the phasing action has been completed during the untap step, if the game has either the day or night designation, it checks to see whether that designation should change. If it’s neither day nor night, this check doesn’t happen. See rule 502.2.


703.4c Immediately after the game checks to see if its day or night designation should change during the untap step or, if the game doesn’t have a day or night designation, immediately after the phasing action has been completed during the untap step, the active player determines which permanents they control will untap. Then they untap them all simultaneously. See rule 502.3.


703.4d Immediately after the draw step begins, the active player draws a card. See rule 504.1.


703.4e In an Archenemy game (see rule 904), immediately after the archenemy’s precombat main phase begins, that player sets the top card of their scheme deck in motion. See rule 701.25.


703.4f Immediately after a player’s precombat main phase begins, that player puts a lore counter on each Saga enchantment they control. In an Archenemy game, this happens after the archenemy’s scheme action. See rule 714, “Saga Cards.”


703.4g Immediately after the action of placing lore counters has been completed, if the active player controls any Attractions, that player rolls to visit their Attractions. See rule 701.49, “Roll to Visit Your Attractions.”


703.4h Immediately after the beginning of combat step begins, if the game being played is a multiplayer game in which the active player’s opponents don’t all automatically become defending players, the active player chooses one of their opponents. That player becomes the defending player. See rule 507.1.


703.4i Immediately after the declare attackers step begins, the active player declares attackers. See rule 508.1.


703.4j Immediately after the declare blockers step begins, the defending player declares blockers. See rule 509.1.


703.4k Immediately after blockers have been declared during the declare blockers step, for each attacking creature that’s become blocked by multiple creatures, the active player announces the damage assignment order among the blocking creatures. See rule 509.2.


703.4m Immediately after the active player has announced damage assignment orders (if necessary) during the declare blockers step, for each creature that’s blocking multiple creatures, the defending player announces the damage assignment order among the attacking creatures. See rule 509.3.


703.4n Immediately after the combat damage step begins, each player in APNAP order announces how each attacking or blocking creature they control assigns its combat damage. See rule 510.1.


703.4p Immediately after combat damage has been assigned during the combat damage step, all combat damage is dealt simultaneously. See rule 510.2.


703.4q Immediately after the cleanup step begins, if the active player’s hand contains more cards than their maximum hand size (normally seven), they discard enough cards to reduce their hand size to that number. See rule 514.1.


703.4r Immediately after the active player has discarded cards (if necessary) during the cleanup step, all damage is removed from permanents and all “until end of turn” and “this turn” effects end. These actions happen simultaneously. See rule 514.2.


703.4s When each step or phase ends, any unused mana left in a player’s mana pool empties. See rule 500.4.


704. State-Based Actions


704.1. State-based actions are game actions that happen automatically whenever certain conditions (listed below) are met. State-based actions don’t use the stack.


704.1a Abilities that watch for a specified game state are triggered abilities, not state-based actions. (See rule 603, “Handling Triggered Abilities.”)


704.2. State-based actions are checked throughout the game and are not controlled by any player.


704.3. Whenever a player would get priority (see rule 117, “Timing and Priority”), the game checks for any of the listed conditions for state-based actions, then performs all applicable state-based actions simultaneously as a single event. If any state-based actions are performed as a result of a check, the check is repeated; otherwise all triggered abilities that are waiting to be put on the stack are put on the stack, then the check is repeated. Once no more state-based actions have been performed as the result of a check and no triggered abilities are waiting to be put on the stack, the appropriate player gets priority. This process also occurs during the cleanup step (see rule 514), except that if no state-based actions are performed as the result of the step’s first check and no triggered abilities are waiting to be put on the stack, then no player gets priority and the step ends.


704.4. Unlike triggered abilities, state-based actions pay no attention to what happens during the resolution of a spell or ability.

Example: A player controls a creature with the ability “This creature’s power and toughness are each equal to the number of cards in your hand” and casts a spell whose effect is “Discard your hand, then draw seven cards.” The creature will temporarily have toughness 0 in the middle of the spell’s resolution but will be back up to toughness 7 when the spell finishes resolving. Thus the creature will survive when state-based actions are checked. In contrast, an ability that triggers when the player has no cards in hand goes on the stack after the spell resolves, because its trigger event happened during resolution.


704.5. The state-based actions are as follows:


704.5a If a player has 0 or less life, that player loses the game.


704.5b If a player attempted to draw a card from a library with no cards in it since the last time state-based actions were checked, that player loses the game.


704.5c If a player has ten or more poison counters, that player loses the game. Ignore this rule in Two-Headed Giant games; see rule 704.6b instead.


704.5d If a token is in a zone other than the battlefield, it ceases to exist.


704.5e If a copy of a spell is in a zone other than the stack, it ceases to exist. If a copy of a card is in any zone other than the stack or the battlefield, it ceases to exist.


704.5f If a creature has toughness 0 or less, it’s put into its owner’s graveyard. Regeneration can’t replace this event.


704.5g If a creature has toughness greater than 0, it has damage marked on it, and the total damage marked on it is greater than or equal to its toughness, that creature has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed. Regeneration can replace this event.


704.5h If a creature has toughness greater than 0, and it’s been dealt damage by a source with deathtouch since the last time state-based actions were checked, that creature is destroyed. Regeneration can replace this event.


704.5i If a planeswalker has loyalty 0, it’s put into its owner’s graveyard.


704.5j If two or more legendary permanents with the same name are controlled by the same player, that player chooses one of them, and the rest are put into their owners’ graveyards. This is called the “legend rule.”


704.5k If two or more permanents have the supertype world, all except the one that has had the world supertype for the shortest amount of time are put into their owners’ graveyards. In the event of a tie for the shortest amount of time, all are put into their owners’ graveyards. This is called the “world rule.”


704.5m If an Aura is attached to an illegal object or player, or is not attached to an object or player, that Aura is put into its owner’s graveyard.


704.5n If an Equipment or Fortification is attached to an illegal permanent or to a player, it becomes unattached from that permanent or player. It remains on the battlefield.


704.5p If a battle or creature is attached to an object or player, it becomes unattached and remains on the battlefield. Similarly, if any nonbattle, noncreature permanent that’s neither an Aura, an Equipment, nor a Fortification is attached to an object or player, it becomes unattached and remains on the battlefield.


704.5q If a permanent has both a +1/+1 counter and a -1/-1 counter on it, N +1/+1 and N -1/-1 counters are removed from it, where N is the smaller of the number of +1/+1 and -1/-1 counters on it.


704.5r If a permanent with an ability that says it can’t have more than N counters of a certain kind on it has more than N counters of that kind on it, all but N of those counters are removed from it.


704.5s If the number of lore counters on a Saga permanent is greater than or equal to its final chapter number and it isn’t the source of a chapter ability that has triggered but not yet left the stack, that Saga’s controller sacrifices it. See rule 714, “Saga Cards.”


704.5t If a player’s venture marker is on the bottommost room of a dungeon card, and that dungeon card isn’t the source of a room ability that has triggered but not yet left the stack, the dungeon card’s owner removes it from the game. See rule 309, “Dungeons.”


704.5u If a permanent with space sculptor and any creatures without a sector designation are on the battlefield, each player who controls one or more of those creatures and doesn’t control a permanent with space sculptor chooses a sector designation for each of those creatures they control. Then, each other player who controls one or more of those creatures chooses a sector designation for each of those creatures they control. See rule 702.158, “Space Sculptor.”


704.5v If a battle has defense 0 and it isn’t the source of an ability that has triggered but not yet left the stack, it’s put into its owner’s graveyard.


704.5w If a battle has no player in the game designated as its protector and no attacking creatures are currently attacking that battle, that battle’s controller chooses an appropriate player to be its protector based on its battle type. If no player can be chosen this way, the battle is put into its owner’s graveyard. See rule 310, “Battles.”


704.5x If a Siege’s controller is also its designated protector, that player chooses an opponent to become its protector. If no player can be chosen this way, the battle is put into its owner’s graveyard. See rule 310, “Battles.”


704.5y If a permanent has more than one Role controlled by the same player attached to it, each of those Roles except the one with the most recent timestamp is put into its owner’s graveyard.


704.6. Some variant games include additional state-based actions that aren’t normally applicable:


704.6a In a Two-Headed Giant game, if a team has 0 or less life, that team loses the game. See rule 810, “Two-Headed Giant Variant.”


704.6b In a Two-Headed Giant game, if a team has fifteen or more poison counters, that team loses the game. See rule 810, “Two-Headed Giant Variant.”


704.6c In a Commander game, a player who’s been dealt 21 or more combat damage by the same commander over the course of the game loses the game. See rule 903, “Commander.”


704.6d In a Commander game, if a commander is in a graveyard or in exile and that object was put into that zone since the last time state-based actions were checked, its owner may put it into the command zone. See rule 903, “Commander.”


704.6e In an Archenemy game, if a non-ongoing scheme card is face up in the command zone, and no triggered abilities of any scheme are on the stack or waiting to be put on the stack, that scheme card is turned face down and put on the bottom of its owner’s scheme deck. See rule 904, “Archenemy.”


704.6f In a Planechase game, if a phenomenon card is face up in the command zone, and it isn’t the source of a triggered ability that has triggered but not yet left the stack, the planar controller planeswalks. See rule 901, “Planechase.”


704.7. If multiple state-based actions would have the same result at the same time, a single replacement effect will replace all of them.

Example: You control Lich’s Mirror, which says “If you would lose the game, instead shuffle your hand, your graveyard, and all permanents you own into your library, then draw seven cards and your life total becomes 20.” There’s one card in your library and your life total is 1. A spell causes you to draw two cards and lose 2 life. The next time state-based actions are checked, you’d lose the game due to rule 704.5a and rule 704.5b. Instead, Lich’s Mirror replaces that game loss and you keep playing.


704.8. If a state-based action results in a permanent leaving the battlefield at the same time other state-based actions were performed, that permanent’s last known information is derived from the game state before any of those state-based actions were performed.

Example: You control Young Wolf, a 1/1 creature with undying, and it has a +1/+1 counter on it. A spell puts three -1/-1 counters on Young Wolf. Before state-based actions are performed, Young Wolf has one +1/+1 counter and three -1/-1 counters on it. After state-based actions are performed, Young Wolf is in the graveyard. When it was last on the battlefield, it had a +1/+1 counter on it, so undying will not trigger.


705. Flipping a Coin


705.1. Some cards refer to flipping a coin. A coin used in a flip must be a two-sided object with easily distinguished sides and equal likelihood that either side lands face up. If the coin that’s being flipped doesn’t have an obvious “heads” or “tails,” designate one side to be “heads,” and the other side to be “tails.” Other methods of randomization may be substituted for flipping a coin as long as there are two possible outcomes of equal likelihood and all players agree to the substitution. For example, the player may roll an even-sided die and call “odds” or “evens,” or roll an even-sided die and designate that “odds” means “heads” and “evens” means “tails.”


705.2. Some effects that instruct a player to flip a coin care only about whether the coin comes up heads or tails. No player wins or loses a coin flip for this kind of effect. For all other effects that instruct a player to flip a coin, the player that flips the coin calls “heads” or “tails.” If the call matches the result, the player wins the flip. Otherwise, the player loses the flip. Only the player who flips the coin wins or loses the flip; no other players are involved.


706. Rolling a Die


706.1. An effect that instructs a player to roll a die will specify what kind of die to roll and how many of those dice to roll.


706.1a Such an effect may refer to an “N-sided die,” “N-sided dice,” or one or more “dN,” where N is a positive integer. In those cases, the die must have N equally likely outcomes, numbered from 1 to N. For example, a d20 is a twenty-sided die with possible outcomes from 1 to 20.


706.1b Players may agree to use an alternate method for rolling a die, including a digital substitute, as long as the method used has the same number of equally likely outcomes as the die specified in the instruction.


706.2. After the roll, the number indicated on the top face of the die before any modifiers is the natural result. The instruction may include modifiers to the roll which add to or subtract from the natural result. Modifiers may also come from other sources. After considering all applicable modifiers, the final number is the result of the die roll.


706.2a Modifiers may be optional and/or have associated costs. If a modifier has an associated mana cost, the player who rolled has the chance to activate mana abilities before applying it.


706.2b If two or more effects are attempting to modify the natural result, the player who rolled chooses one to apply, following these steps: First, consider any effects that modify the result of a die roll by rerolling that die. Second, consider any effects that modify the result of a die roll by increasing or decreasing that result by a specified amount.


706.3. Some abilities that instruct a player to roll one or more dice include a results table.


706.3a The results table appears as a list or as a chart with multiple striations. Each list item or striation includes possible results and an effect associated with those results. The possible results indicated could be a single number, a range of numbers with two endpoints in the form “N1–N2,” or a range with a single endpoint in the form “N+.” Each one means “If the result was in this range, [effect].” After a die roll, use the result to determine which effect listed on the results table happens, if any.


706.3b An instruction to roll one or more dice, any instructions to modify that roll printed in the same paragraph, any additional instructions based on the result of the roll, and the associated results table are all part of one ability.


706.3c Some effects in results charts include the text “Roll again.” This additional roll uses the same kind of and number of dice originally called for, including any applicable modifiers.


706.4. Some abilities that instruct a player to roll one or more dice do not include a results table. The text of those abilities will indicate how to use the results of the die rolls, if at all.


706.5. One card (Celebr-8000) has an ability that instructs a player to roll two dice and has an additional effect if that player “rolled doubles.” A player has rolled doubles if the result of each of those rolls is equal to the other.


706.6. If a player is instructed to ignore a roll, that roll is considered to have never happened. No abilities trigger because of the ignored roll, and no effects apply to that roll. If that player was instructed to ignore the lowest roll and multiple results are tied for the lowest, the player chooses one of those rolls to be ignored.


706.7. In a Planechase game, rolling the planar die will cause any ability that triggers whenever a player rolls one or more dice to trigger. However, any effect that refers to a numerical result of a die roll, including ones that exchange the results of that roll with another value or compare the results of that roll to other rolls or to a given number, ignores the rolling of the planar die. See rule 901, “Planechase.”


706.8. One card (Centaur of Attention) has an ability that instructs a player to roll dice and “store” those results on it and another ability that allows a player to reroll any number of those results.


706.8a To store the result of a die roll on a permanent means to note both the kind of die rolled and the result of that roll. That noted information is considered a “stored result” of that permanent, and the result is the “value” of that stored result.


706.8b To reroll one or more stored results of a permanent, roll one of the kind of die noted for each of them. If one kind of die is noted for more than one of those results, roll that many of that kind of die. The results you rerolled stop being stored results, and you store the results of each of the new die rolls on that permanent.


706.8c If a permanent has an ability that stores results on it and another ability that refers to the stored results, those abilities are linked. (See rule 607.2e.)


707. Copying Objects


707.1. Some objects become or turn another object into a “copy” of a spell, permanent, or card. Some effects create a token that’s a copy of another object. (Certain older cards were printed with the phrase “search for a copy.” This section doesn’t cover those cards, which have received new text in the Oracle card reference.)


707.2. When copying an object, the copy acquires the copiable values of the original object’s characteristics and, for an object on the stack, choices made when casting or activating it (mode, targets, the value of X, whether it was kicked, how it will affect multiple targets, and so on). The copiable values are the values derived from the text printed on the object (that text being name, mana cost, color indicator, card type, subtype, supertype, rules text, power, toughness, and/or loyalty), as modified by other copy effects, by its face-down status, and by “as . . . enters the battlefield” and “as . . . is turned face up” abilities that set power and toughness (and may also set additional characteristics). Other effects (including type-changing and text-changing effects), status, counters, and stickers are not copied.

Example: Chimeric Staff is an artifact that reads, “{X}: Chimeric Staff becomes an X/X artifact creature until end of turn.” Clone is a creature that reads, “You may have Clone enter the battlefield as a copy of any creature on the battlefield.” After a Staff has become a 5/5 artifact creature, a Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of it. The Clone is an artifact, not a 5/5 artifact creature. (The copy has the Staff’s ability, however, and will become a creature if that ability is activated.)

Example: Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of a face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph {2}{B}{B}). The Clone is a colorless 2/2 creature with no name, no types, no abilities, and no mana cost. It will still be face up. Its controller can’t pay {2}{B}{B} to turn it face up.


707.2a A copy acquires the color of the object it’s copying because that value is derived from its mana cost or color indicator. A copy acquires the abilities of the object it’s copying because those values are derived from its rules text. A copy doesn’t wind up with two values of each ability (that is, it doesn’t copy the object’s abilities and its rules text, then have that rules text define a new set of abilities).


707.2b Once an object has been copied, changing the copiable values of the original object won’t cause the copy to change.


707.2c If a static ability generates a continuous effect that’s a copy effect, the copiable values that effect grants are determined only at the time that effect first starts to apply.


707.3. The copy’s copiable values become the copied information, as modified by the copy’s status (see rule 110.5). Objects that copy the object will use the new copiable values.

Example: Vesuvan Doppelganger reads, “You may have Vesuvan Doppelganger enter the battlefield as a copy of any creature on the battlefield, except it doesn’t copy that creature’s color and it has ‘At the beginning of your upkeep, you may have this creature become a copy of target creature, except it doesn’t copy that creature’s color and it has this ability.’” A Vesuvan Doppelganger enters the battlefield as a copy of Runeclaw Bear (a 2/2 green Bear creature with no abilities). Then a Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of the Doppelganger. The Clone is a 2/2 blue Bear named Runeclaw Bear that has the Doppelganger’s upkeep-triggered ability.

Example: Tomoya the Revealer (a flipped flip card) becomes a copy of Nezumi Shortfang (an unflipped flip card). Tomoya’s characteristics become the characteristics of Stabwhisker the Odious, which is the flipped version of Nezumi Shortfang.

Example: A face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph) becomes a copy of a face-up Branchsnap Lorian (a 4/1 green creature with trample and morph {G}). The Demon’s characteristics become the characteristics of Branchsnap Lorian. However, since the creature is face down, it remains a 2/2 colorless creature with no name, types, or abilities, and no mana cost. It can be turned face up for {G}. If it’s turned face up, it will have the characteristics of Branchsnap Lorian.

Example: A face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph) becomes a copy of Wandering Ones (a 1/1 blue Spirit creature that doesn’t have morph). It will be a face-down Wandering Ones. It remains a 2/2 colorless creature with no name, types, or abilities, and no mana cost. Its controller can’t turn it face up as a special action. If an effect turns it face up, it will have the characteristics of Wandering Ones.


707.4. Some effects cause a permanent that’s copying a permanent to copy a different object while remaining on the battlefield. The change doesn’t trigger enters-the-battlefield or leaves-the-battlefield abilities. This also doesn’t change any noncopy effects presently affecting the permanent.

Example: Unstable Shapeshifter reads, “Whenever a creature enters the battlefield, Unstable Shapeshifter becomes a copy of that creature and gains this ability.” It’s affected by Giant Growth, which reads “Target creature gets +3/+3 until end of turn.” If a creature enters the battlefield later this turn, Unstable Shapeshifter will become a copy of that creature, but it will still get +3/+3 from the Giant Growth.


707.5. An object that enters the battlefield “as a copy” or “that’s a copy” of another object becomes a copy as it enters the battlefield. It doesn’t enter the battlefield, and then become a copy of that permanent. If the text that’s being copied includes any abilities that replace the enters-the-battlefield event (such as “enters the battlefield with” or “as [this] enters the battlefield” abilities), those abilities will take effect. Also, any enters-the-battlefield triggered abilities of the copy will have a chance to trigger.

Example: Skyshroud Behemoth reads, “Fading 2 (This creature enters the battlefield with two fade counters on it. At the beginning of your upkeep, remove a fade counter from it. If you can’t, sacrifice it.)” and “Skyshroud Behemoth enters the battlefield tapped.” A Clone that enters the battlefield as a copy of a Skyshroud Behemoth will also enter the battlefield tapped with two fade counters on it.

Example: Wall of Omens reads, “When Wall of Omens enters the battlefield, draw a card.” A Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of Wall of Omens. The Clone has the Wall’s enters-the-battlefield triggered ability, so the Clone’s controller draws a card.


707.6. When copying a permanent, any choices that have been made for that permanent aren’t copied. Instead, if an object enters the battlefield as a copy of another permanent, the object’s controller will get to make any “as [this] enters the battlefield” choices for it.

Example: A Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of Adaptive Automaton. Adaptive Automaton reads, in part, “As Adaptive Automaton enters the battlefield, choose a creature type.” The Clone won’t copy the creature type choice of the Automaton; rather, the controller of the Clone will get to make a new choice.


707.7. If a pair of linked abilities are copied, those abilities will be similarly linked to one another on the object that copied them. One ability refers only to actions that were taken or objects that were affected by the other. They can’t be linked to any other ability, regardless of what other abilities the copy may currently have or may have had in the past. See rule 607, “Linked Abilities.”


707.8. When copying a melded permanent or other double-faced permanent, use the copiable values of the face that’s currently up to determine the characteristics of the copy. See rule 712, “Double-Faced Cards.”


707.8a If an effect creates a token that is a copy of a transforming permanent or a transforming double-faced card not on the battlefield, the resulting token is a transforming token that has both a front face and a back face. The characteristics of each face are determined by the copiable values of the same face of the permanent it is a copy of, as modified by any other copy effects that apply to that permanent. If the token is a copy of a transforming permanent with its back face up, the token enters the battlefield with its back face up. This rule does not apply to tokens that are created with their own set of characteristics and enter the battlefield as a copy of a transforming permanent due to a replacement effect.

Example: Afflicted Deserter is the front face of a transforming double-faced card, and the name of its back face is Werewolf Ransacker. If an effect creates a token that is a copy of that transforming permanent, the token also has the same two faces and can transform. It enters the battlefield with the same face up as the permanent that it is a copy of.

Example: Clone is not a transforming double-faced card, so a token that is created as a copy of a Clone is not a transforming token, even if it enters the battlefield as a copy of a transforming permanent due to Clone’s replacement effect.


707.9. Copy effects may include modifications or exceptions to the copying process.


707.9a Some copy effects cause the copy to gain an ability as part of the copying process. This ability becomes part of the copiable values for the copy, along with any other abilities that were copied.

Example: Quirion Elves enters the battlefield and an Unstable Shapeshifter copies it. The copiable values of the Shapeshifter now match those of the Elves, except that the Shapeshifter also has the ability “Whenever a creature enters the battlefield, Unstable Shapeshifter becomes a copy of that creature, except it has this ability.” Then a Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of the Unstable Shapeshifter. The Clone copies the new copiable values of the Shapeshifter, including the ability that the Shapeshifter gave itself when it copied the Elves.


707.9b Some copy effects modify a characteristic as part of the copying process. The final set of values for that characteristic becomes part of the copiable values of the copy.

Example: Copy Artifact is an enchantment that reads, “You may have Copy Artifact enter the battlefield as a copy of any artifact on the battlefield, except it’s an enchantment in addition to its other types.” It enters the battlefield as a copy of Juggernaut. The copiable values of the Copy Artifact now match those of Juggernaut with one modification: its types are now artifact, creature, and enchantment.


707.9c Some copy effects specifically state that they don’t copy certain characteristics and the affected objects instead retain their original values. Copy effects may also simply state that certain characteristics are not copied.


707.9d When applying a copy effect that doesn’t copy a certain characteristic, retains one or more original values for a certain characteristic, or provides a specific set of values for a certain characteristic, any characteristic-defining ability (see rule 604.3) of the object being copied that defines that characteristic is not copied. If that characteristic is color, any color indicator (see rule 204) of that object is also not copied. This rule does not apply to copy effects with exceptions that state the object is a certain card type, supertype, and/or subtype “in addition to its other types.” In those cases, any characteristic-defining ability that defines card type, supertype, and/or subtype is copied.

Example: Quicksilver Gargantuan is a creature that reads, “You may have Quicksilver Gargantuan enter the battlefield as a copy of any creature on the battlefield, except it’s 7/7.” Quicksilver Gargantuan enters the battlefield as a copy of Tarmogoyf, which has a characteristic-defining ability that defines its power and toughness. Quicksilver Gargantuan does not have that ability. It will be 7/7.

Example: Glasspool Mimic is a creature that reads “You may have Glasspool Mimic enter the battlefield as a copy of a creature you control, except it’s a Shapeshifter Rogue in addition to its other types.” Glasspool Mimic enters the battlefield as a copy of a creature with changeling. Glasspool Mimic will have changeling and will have all creature types.


707.9e Some replacement effects that generate copy effects include an exception that’s an additional effect rather than a modification of the affected object’s characteristics. If another copy effect is applied to that object after applying the copy effect with that exception, the exception’s effect doesn’t happen.

Example: Altered Ego reads, “You may have Altered Ego enter the battlefield as a copy of any creature on the battlefield, except it enters with X additional +1/+1 counters on it.” You choose for it to enter the battlefield as a copy of Clone, which reads “You may have Clone enter the battlefield as a copy of any creature on the battlefield,” for which no creature was chosen as it entered the battlefield. If you then choose a creature to copy as you apply the replacement effect Altered Ego gains by copying Clone, Altered Ego’s replacement effect won’t cause it to enter the battlefield with any +1/+1 counters on it.


707.9f Some exceptions to the copying process apply only if the copy is or has certain characteristics. To determine whether such an exception applies, consider what the resulting permanent’s characteristics would be if the copy effect were applied without that exception, taking into account any other exceptions that effect includes.

Example: Moritte of the Frost says, in part, “You may have Moritte of the Frost enter the battlefield as a copy of a permanent you control, except it’s legendary and snow in addition to its other types and, if it’s a creature, it enters with two additional +1/+1 counters on it and it has changeling.” Moritte of the Frost copies a land that has become a creature until end of turn. It would enter as a noncreature permanent, so it won’t enter with two additional +1+1 counters on it and it won’t have changeling, even if it becomes a creature later in the turn.


707.9g Some replacement effects that generate copy effects are linked to triggered abilities written in the same paragraph. (See rule 603.11.) If another copy effect is applied to that object after applying the copy effect with the linked triggered ability, the ability doesn’t trigger.


707.10. To copy a spell, activated ability, or triggered ability means to put a copy of it onto the stack; a copy of a spell isn’t cast and a copy of an activated ability isn’t activated. A copy of a spell or ability copies both the characteristics of the spell or ability and all decisions made for it, including modes, targets, the value of X, and additional or alternative costs. (See rule 601, “Casting Spells.”) Choices that are normally made on resolution are not copied. If an effect of the copy refers to objects used to pay its costs, it uses the objects used to pay the costs of the original spell or ability. A copy of a spell is owned by the player under whose control it was put on the stack. A copy of a spell or ability is controlled by the player under whose control it was put on the stack. A copy of a spell is itself a spell, even though it has no spell card associated with it. A copy of an ability is itself an ability.

Example: A player casts Fork, targeting an Emerald Charm. Fork reads, “Copy target instant or sorcery spell, except that the copy is red. You may choose new targets for the copy.” Emerald Charm is a modal green instant. When the Fork resolves, it puts a copy of the Emerald Charm on the stack except the copy is red, not green. The copy has the same mode that was chosen for the original Emerald Charm. It does not necessarily have the same target, but only because Fork allows choosing of new targets.

Example: Fling is an instant that reads, “As an additional cost to cast this spell, sacrifice a creature” and “Fling deals damage equal to the sacrificed creature’s power to any target.” When determining how much damage a copy of Fling deals, it checks the power of the creature sacrificed to pay for the original Fling.

Example: Dawnglow Infusion is a sorcery that reads, “You gain X life if {G} was spent to cast this spell and X life if {W} was spent to cast it.” Because mana isn’t an object, a copy of Dawnglow Infusion won’t cause you to gain any life, no matter what mana was spent to cast the original spell.


707.10a If a copy of a spell is in a zone other than the stack, it ceases to exist. If a copy of a card is in any zone other than the stack or the battlefield, it ceases to exist. These are state-based actions. See rule 704.


707.10b A copy of an ability has the same source as the original ability. If the ability refers to its source by name, the copy refers to that same object and not to any other object with the same name. The copy is considered to be the same ability by effects that count how many times that ability has resolved during the turn.


707.10c Some effects copy a spell or ability and state that its controller may choose new targets for the copy. The player may leave any number of the targets unchanged, even if those targets would be illegal. If the player chooses to change some or all of the targets, the new targets must be legal. Once the player has decided what the copy’s targets will be, the copy is put onto the stack with those targets.


707.10d Some effects copy a spell or ability for each player or object it “could target.” The copies are put onto the stack with those targets in the order of their controller’s choice. If the spell or ability has more than one target, each of its targets must be the same player or object. If that player or object isn’t a legal target for each instance of the word “target,” a copy isn’t created for that player or object.


707.10e Some effects copy a spell or ability and specify a new target for the copy. If the spell or ability has more than one target, each of the copy’s targets must be that player or object. If that player or object isn’t a legal target for each instance of the word “target,” the copy isn’t created.


707.10f Some effects copy a permanent spell. As that copy resolves, it ceases being a copy of a spell and becomes a token permanent. (See rule 608.3f.)


707.10g If an effect creates a copy of a transforming permanent spell, the copy is also a transforming permanent spell that has both a front face and a back face. The characteristics of its front and back face are determined by the copiable values of the same face of the spell it is a copy of, as modified by any other copy effects. If the spell it is a copy of has its back face up, the copy is created with its back face up. The token that’s put onto the battlefield as that spell resolves is a transforming token.


707.11. If an effect refers to a permanent by name, the effect still tracks that permanent even if it changes names or becomes a copy of something else.

Example: An Unstable Shapeshifter copies a Crazed Armodon. Crazed Armodon reads, “{G}: Crazed Armodon gets +3/+0 and gains trample until end of turn. Destroy Crazed Armodon at the beginning of the next end step. Activate only once each turn.” If this ability of the Shapeshifter is activated, the Shapeshifter will be destroyed at the beginning of the next end step, even if it’s no longer a copy of Crazed Armodon at that time.


707.12. An effect that instructs a player to cast a copy of an object (and not just copy a spell) follows the rules for casting spells, except that the copy is created in the same zone the object is in and then cast while another spell or ability is resolving. Casting a copy of an object follows steps 601.2a–h of rule 601, “Casting Spells,” and then the copy becomes cast. Once cast, the copy is a spell on the stack, and just like any other spell it can resolve or be countered.


707.13. One card (Garth One-Eye) instructs a player to create a copy of a card defined by name rather than by indicating an object to be copied. To do so, the player uses the Oracle card reference to determine the characteristics of the copy and creates the copy outside of the game.


707.14. One card (Magar of the Magic Strings) instructs a player to note the name of a particular card in a graveyard and create a copy of the card with the noted name. To do so, use the characteristics of that card as it last existed in the graveyard to determine the copiable values of the copy. (See rule 608.2h.)


708. Face-Down Spells and Permanents


708.1. Some cards allow spells and permanents to be face down.


708.2. Face-down spells and face-down permanents have no characteristics other than those listed by the ability or rules that allowed the spell or permanent to be face down. Any listed characteristics are the copiable values of that object’s characteristics. (See rule 613, “Interaction of Continuous Effects,” and rule 707, “Copying Objects.”)


708.2a If a face-up permanent is turned face down by a spell or ability that doesn’t list any characteristics for that object, it becomes a 2/2 face-down creature with no text, no name, no subtypes, and no mana cost. A permanent that enters the battlefield face down also has these characteristics unless otherwise specified by the effect that put it onto the battlefield face down or allowed it to be cast face down. These values are the copiable values of that object’s characteristics.


708.2b A face-down permanent can’t be turned face-down. If a spell or ability attempts to turn a face-down permanent face down, nothing happens and that effect doesn’t change any of its characteristics or their copiable values.


708.3. Objects that are put onto the battlefield face down are turned face down before they enter the battlefield, so the permanent’s enters-the-battlefield abilities won’t trigger (if triggered) or have any effect (if static).


708.4. Objects that are cast face down are turned face down before they are put onto the stack, so effects that care about the characteristics of a spell will see only the face-down spell’s characteristics. Any effects or prohibitions that would apply to casting an object with these characteristics (and not the face-up object’s characteristics) are applied to casting this object. The permanent the spell becomes will be a face-down permanent.


708.5. At any time, you may look at a face-down spell you control on the stack or a face-down permanent you control (even if it’s phased out). You can’t look at face-down cards in any other zone or face-down spells or permanents controlled by another player.


708.6. If you control multiple face-down spells or face-down permanents, you must ensure at all times that your face-down spells and permanents can be easily differentiated from each other. This includes, but is not limited to, knowing what ability or rules caused the permanents to be face down, the order spells were cast, the order that face-down permanents entered the battlefield, which creature(s) attacked last turn, and any other differences between face-down spells or permanents. Common methods for distinguishing between face-down objects include using counters or dice to mark the different objects, or clearly placing those objects in order on the table.


708.7. The ability or rules that allow a permanent to be face down may also allow the permanent’s controller to turn it face up. Spells normally can’t be turned face up.


708.8. As a face-down permanent is turned face up, its copiable values revert to its normal copiable values. Any effects that have been applied to the face-down permanent still apply to the face-up permanent. Any abilities relating to the permanent entering the battlefield don’t trigger and don’t have any effect, because the permanent has already entered the battlefield.


708.9. If a face-down permanent or a face-down component of a merged permanent moves from the battlefield to any other zone, its owner must reveal it to all players as they move it. If a face-down spell moves from the stack to any zone other than the battlefield, its owner must reveal it to all players as they move it. If a player leaves the game, all face-down permanents, face-down components of merged permanents, and face-down spells owned by that player must be revealed to all players. At the end of each game, all face-down permanents, face-down components of merged permanents, and face-down spells must be revealed to all players.


708.10. If a face-down permanent becomes a copy of another permanent, its copiable values become the copiable values of that permanent, as modified by its face-down status. Its characteristics therefore remain the same: the characteristics listed by the ability or rules that allowed it to be turned face down. However, if it is turned face up, its copiable values become the values it copied from the other permanent. See rule 707.3.


708.11. If a face-down permanent would have an “As [this permanent] is turned face up . . .” ability after it’s turned face up, that ability is applied while that permanent is being turned face up, not afterward.


709. Split Cards


709.1. Split cards have two card faces on a single card. The back of a split card is the normal Magic card back.


709.2. Although split cards have two castable halves, each split card is only one card. For example, a player who has drawn or discarded a split card has drawn or discarded one card, not two.


709.3. A player chooses which half of a split card they are casting before putting it onto the stack.


709.3a Only the chosen half is evaluated to see if it can be cast. Only that half is considered to be put onto the stack.


709.3b While on the stack, only the characteristics of the half being cast exist. The other half’s characteristics are treated as though they didn’t exist.


709.3c An effect may create a copy of a split card and allow a player to cast the copy. That copy retains the characteristics of the two halves separated into the same two halves as the original card. (See rule 707.12.)


709.4. In every zone except the stack, the characteristics of a split card are those of its two halves combined. This is a change from previous rules.


709.4a Each split card has two names. If an effect instructs a player to choose a card name and the player wants to choose a split card’s name, the player must choose one of those names and not both. An object has the chosen name if one of its names is the chosen name.


709.4b The mana cost of a split card is the combined mana costs of its two halves. A split card’s colors and mana value are determined from its combined mana cost. An effect that refers specifically to the symbols in a split card’s mana cost sees the separate symbols rather than the whole mana cost.

Example: Assault//Battery’s mana cost is {3}{R}{G}. It’s a red and green card with a mana value of 5. If you cast Assault, the resulting spell is a red spell with a mana value of 1.

Example: Fire//Ice’s mana cost is {2}{U}{R}. It has the same mana cost as Steam Augury, but an effect such as that of Jegantha, the Wellspring sees that it contains the mana symbol {1} twice.


709.4c A split card has each card type specified on either of its halves and each ability in the text box of each half.


709.4d The characteristics of a fused split spell on the stack are also those of its two halves combined (see rule 702.102, “Fuse”).


710. Flip Cards


710.1. Flip cards have a two-part card frame on a single card. The text that appears right side up on the card defines the card’s normal characteristics. Additional alternative characteristics appear upside down on the card. The back of a flip card is the normal Magic card back.


710.1a The top half of a flip card contains the card’s normal name, text box, type line, power, and toughness. The text box usually contains an ability that causes the permanent to “flip” if certain conditions are met.


710.1b The bottom half of a flip card contains an alternative name, text box, type line, power, and toughness. These characteristics are used only if the permanent is on the battlefield and only if the permanent is flipped.


710.1c A flip card’s color and mana cost don’t change if the permanent is flipped. Also, any changes to it by external effects will still apply.


710.2. In every zone other than the battlefield, and also on the battlefield before the permanent flips, a flip card has only the normal characteristics of the card. Once a permanent is flipped, its normal name, text box, type line, power, and toughness don’t apply and the alternative versions of those characteristics apply instead.

Example: Akki Lavarunner is a nonlegendary creature that flips into a legendary creature named Tok-Tok, Volcano Born. An effect that says “Search your library for a legendary card” can’t find this flip card. An effect that says “Legendary creatures get +2/+2” doesn’t affect Akki Lavarunner, but it does affect Tok-Tok.


710.3. You must ensure that it’s clear at all times whether a permanent you control is flipped or not, both when it’s untapped and when it’s tapped. Common methods for distinguishing between flipped and unflipped permanents include using coins or dice to mark flipped objects.


710.4. Flipping a permanent is a one-way process. Once a permanent is flipped, it’s impossible for it to become unflipped. However, if a flipped permanent leaves the battlefield, it retains no memory of its status. See rule 110.5.


710.5. If an effect instructs a player to choose a card name and the player wants to choose a flip card’s alternative name, the player may do so.


711. Leveler Cards


711.1. Each leveler card has a striated text box and three power/toughness boxes. The text box of a leveler card contains two level symbols.


711.2. A level symbol is a keyword ability that represents a static ability. The level symbol includes either a range of numbers, indicated here as “N1-N2,” or a single number followed by a plus sign, indicated here as “N3+.” Any abilities printed within the same text box striation as a level symbol are part of its static ability. The same is true of the power/toughness box printed within that striation, indicated here as “[P/T].”


711.2a “{LEVEL N1-N2} [Abilities] [P/T]” means “As long as this creature has at least N1 level counters on it, but no more than N2 level counters on it, it has base power and toughness [P/T] and has [abilities].”


711.2b “{LEVEL N3+} [Abilities] [P/T]” means “As long as this creature has N3 or more level counters on it, it has base power and toughness [P/T] and has [abilities].”


711.3. The text box striations have no game significance other than clearly demarcating which abilities and which power/toughness box are associated with which level symbol. Leveler cards each contain only one text box.


711.4. Any ability a leveler card has that isn’t preceded by a level symbol is treated normally. In particular, each leveler permanent has its level up ability (see rule 702.87) at all times; it may be activated regardless of how many level counters are on that permanent.


711.5. If the number of level counters on a leveler creature is less than N1 (the first number printed in its {LEVEL N1-N2} symbol), it has the power and toughness denoted by its uppermost power/toughness box.


711.6. In every zone other than the battlefield, a leveler card has the power and toughness denoted by its uppermost power/toughness box.


711.7. Some enchantments have the subtype Class and associated abilities that give them a class level. These are not level up abilities and class levels do not interact with level counters. See rule 716, “Class Cards.”


712. Double-Faced Cards


712.1. A double-faced card has a Magic card face on one side and either a Magic card face or half of an oversized card face on the other. (It does not have a Magic card back.) There are three kinds of double-faced cards: transforming double-faced cards, modal double-faced cards, and meld cards.


712.2. Transforming double-faced cards have a Magic card face on each side and include abilities on one or both of their faces that allow the card to either “transform” or “convert” (turn over to its other face) and/or allow the card to be cast or enter the battlefield “transformed” or “converted” (with its back face up).


712.2a A transforming double-faced card’s front face is marked by a front-face symbol in its upper left corner. On cards printed starting with The Brothers’ War™ release, that symbol is a single white triangle pointed upward inside a black circle. Transforming double-faced cards printed in older sets have different front-face symbols. On Magic Origins™ and Core Set 2019 double-faced cards, the front-face symbol is a modified Planeswalker icon. On cards in the Innistrad® block, Shadows over Innistrad set, and Innistrad: Midnight Hunt set, as well as on Ulrich of the Krallenhorde in the Eldritch Moon™ set, the front-face symbol is a sun. On other Eldritch Moon double-faced cards, the front-face symbol is a full moon. On Ixalan® and Rivals of Ixalan™ cards, the front-face symbol is a compass rose. On Kamigawa®: Neon Dynasty double-faced cards, the front-face symbol is a closed fan.


712.2b A transforming double-faced card’s back face is marked by a back-face symbol in its upper left or upper right corner. On cards printed starting with The Brothers’ War release, that symbol is a single white triangle pointed downward inside a black circle. Transforming double-faced cards printed in older sets have different front-face symbols. On Magic Origins and Core Set 2019 double-faced cards, the back-face symbol is a full Planeswalker icon. On cards in the Innistrad block, Shadows over Innistrad set, and Innistrad: Midnight Hunt set, as well as on Ulrich, Uncontested Alpha in the Eldritch Moon set, the back-face symbol is a crescent moon. On other Eldritch Moon double-faced cards, the back-face symbol is a stylized image of Emrakul. On Ixalan and Rivals of Ixalan cards, the back-face symbol is a land icon. On Kamigawa: Neon Dynasty double-faced cards, the back-face symbol is an open fan.


712.2c The front face of a transforming double-faced card whose back face is a creature has the back face’s power and toughness printed in gray above the power and toughness box. This is reminder text and has no effect on game play.


712.3. Modal double-faced cards have a Magic card face on each side. These faces are independent from one another.


712.3a A modal double-faced card’s front face is marked by a front-face symbol in its upper left corner. The front-face symbol is a single black triangle inside a sideways teardrop.


712.3b A modal double-faced card’s back face is marked by a back-face symbol in its upper left corner. The back-face symbol is two white triangles inside a sideways teardrop.


712.3c Each face of a modal double-faced card includes a hint bar in the lower left corner with information about the opposite face. This is reminder text and has no effect on game play.


712.4. Meld cards have a Magic card face on one side and half of an oversized card face on the other.


712.4a One card in each meld pair has an ability that exiles both that object and its counterpart and melds them. To meld the two cards in a meld pair, put them onto the battlefield with their back faces up and combined (see rule 701.37, “Meld”). The resulting permanent is a single object represented by two cards.


712.4b The back faces of a meld pair are used only to determine the characteristics of the melded permanent that pair becomes on the battlefield. If a rule or effect references the back face of a meld card when not part of a melded permanent on the battlefield, it fails to determine its characteristics, regardless of which parts of the melded permanent is represented on that card’s back face.


712.5. There are six specific meld pairs.


712.5a Midnight Scavengers and Graf Rats meld to form Chittering Host.


712.5b Hanweir Garrison and Hanweir Battlements meld to form Hanweir, the Writhing Township.


712.5c Bruna, the Fading Light and Gisela, the Broken Blade meld to form Brisela, Voice of Nightmares.


712.5d Phyrexian Dragon Engine and Mishra, Claimed by Gix meld to form Mishra, Lost to Phyrexia.


712.5e The Mightstone and Weakstone and Urza, Lord Protector meld to form Urza, Planeswalker.


712.5f Argoth, Sanctum of Nature and Titania, Voice of Gaea meld to form Titania, Gaea Incarnate.


712.6. Players who are allowed to look at a double-faced card may look at both sides of that card.


712.7. Players must ensure that double-faced cards in hidden zones are indistinguishable from other cards in the same zone. To do this, the owner of a double-faced card may use completely opaque card sleeves and/or a substitute card (see rule 713). Sanctioned tournaments have additional rules for playing with double-faced cards. See rule 100.6.


712.8. Each face of a transforming or modal double-faced card has its own set of characteristics. The front face of each meld card and the combined face formed by a meld pair each has its own set of characteristics.


712.8a While a double-faced card is outside the game or in a zone other than the battlefield or stack, it has only the characteristics of its front face.


712.8b A meld card on the stack has only the characteristics of its front face.


712.8c Normally, a transforming double-faced spell has its front face up while on the stack and has only the characteristics of its front face. However, if an effect allows a player to cast a transforming double-faced card “transformed” or “converted,” the resulting spell will have its back face up and have only the characteristics of its back face. Its mana value is calculated using the mana cost of its front face.


712.8d While a double-faced permanent has its front face up, it has only the characteristics of its front face.


712.8e While a transforming double-faced permanent has its back face up, it has only the characteristics of its back face. However, its mana value is calculated using the mana cost of its front face. If a permanent is copying the back face of a transforming double-faced permanent (even if the object representing that copy is itself a double-faced permanent), the mana value of that permanent is 0. See rule 202.3b.


712.8f While a modal double-faced spell is on the stack or a modal double-faced permanent is on the battlefield, it has only the characteristics of the face that’s up.


712.8g While the two cards of a meld pair are on the battlefield as a melded permanent, the object represented by those cards has only the characteristics of the combined back face, and its mana value is the sum of the mana values of its front faces. If a permanent is copying a melded permanent, the mana value of the copy is 0. See rule 202.3c.


712.9. Only transforming tokens and permanents represented by transforming double-faced cards can transform or convert. (See rule 701.28, “Transform,” and rule 701.50, “Convert.”) If a spell or ability instructs a player to transform or convert any permanent that isn’t a transforming token or isn’t represented by a transforming double-faced card, nothing happens.

Example: A Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of Wildblood Pack (the back face of a transforming double-faced card). The Clone will be a copy of the Wildblood Pack. Because the Clone is itself not a transforming double-faced card, it can’t transform.

Example: A player casts Cytoshape, causing a Kruin Outlaw (the front face of a transforming double-faced card) to become a copy of Elite Vanguard (a 2/1 Human Soldier creature) until end of turn. The player then casts Moonmist, which reads, in part, “Transform all Humans.” Because the copy of Elite Vanguard is a transforming double-faced card, it will transform. The resulting permanent will have its back face up, but it will still be a copy of Elite Vanguard that turn.

Example: A player controls Blackbloom Rogue, a Human Rogue that’s the front face of a modal double-faced card. They cast Moonmist. Blackbloom Rogue doesn’t transform.


712.10. If a spell or ability instructs a player to transform or convert a permanent, and the face that permanent would transform or convert into is represented by an instant or sorcery card face, or is a transforming token that was created with an instant or sorcery face, nothing happens.


712.11. A double-faced spell is cast with its front face up by default. See rule 601, “Casting Spells.”


712.11a If a transforming double-faced card or a copy of a transforming double-faced card is cast as a spell “transformed” or “converted,” it’s put on the stack with its back face up.


712.11b A player casting a modal double-faced card or a copy of a modal double-faced card as a spell chooses which face they are casting before putting it onto the stack.


712.11c Only the face that will be face up on the stack is evaluated to determine if it can be cast. Only that face is considered to be put onto the stack.


712.11d If an ability of a transforming double-faced card’s front face allows it to be cast “transformed” or “converted,” that ability is also considered when evaluating that spell to determine if it can be cast. This is an exception to 712.11c.


712.12. A player playing a modal double-faced card or a copy of a modal double-faced card as a land chooses one of its faces that’s a land before putting it onto the battlefield. It enters the battlefield with that face up. See rule 305, “Lands.”


712.13. By default, a resolving double-faced spell that becomes a permanent is put onto the battlefield with the same face up that was face up on the stack.


712.13a Some abilities may cause a transforming double-faced spell with its front face up on the stack to enter the battlefield transformed or converted. If the back face of the card that represents that spell is an instant or sorcery card, or that spell is a copy of a double-faced card created with an instant or sorcery back face, it doesn’t enter the battlefield, and is instead put into its owner’s graveyard.

Example: A player controls both Mycosynth Lattice and March of the Machines, the combined effects of which make all permanents artifact creatures in addition to their other types. They also control a Clone on the battlefield that is a copy of Bird Admirer, a creature with daybound. It is currently night, but that permanent can’t transform because it isn’t represented by a double-faced card. Its controller casts Mystic Reflection targeting it, then casts Invasion of Kylem, a Siege battle whose back face is a sorcery. Because Invasion of Kylem is entering the battlefield as a creature, Mystic Reflection’s replacement effect applies to it and it tries to enter the battlefield as a copy of Bird Admirer. Since it is night, the daybound ability would normally cause it to enter with its back face up. However, since its back face is a sorcery, it is instead put into its owner’s graveyard.


712.14. A double-faced card put onto the battlefield from a zone other than the stack enters the battlefield with its front face up by default.


712.14a If a spell or ability puts a transforming double-faced card onto the battlefield “transformed” or “converted,” it enters the battlefield with its back face up. If a player is instructed to put a card that isn’t a transforming double-faced card onto the battlefield transformed or converted, that card stays in its current zone.


712.14b If a player is instructed to put a modal double-faced card onto the battlefield and its front face isn’t a permanent card, the card stays in its current zone.


712.14c If a meld card is being melded with its counterpart, those cards enter the battlefield as a single permanent with their back faces up.


712.15. If an effect allows a player to cast a double-faced card as a face-down creature spell, or if a double-faced card enters the battlefield face down, it will have the characteristics given to it by the rule or effect that caused it to be face down. That card remains hidden, using a face-down substitute card (see rule 713) and/or opaque sleeves. See rule 708, “Face-Down Spells and Permanents.”


712.15a While face down, a transforming double-faced permanent can’t transform or convert. If it’s turned face up, it will have its front face up.


712.16. Melded permanents and other double-faced permanents can’t be turned face down. If a spell or ability tries to turn a double-faced permanent face down, nothing happens.


712.17. A double-faced card that is exiled face down remains hidden, using a face-down substitute card and/or opaque sleeves. See rule 713, “Substitute Cards.”


712.18. When a transforming double-faced permanent transforms or converts, it doesn’t become a new object. Any effects that applied to that permanent will continue to apply to it.

Example: An effect gives Village Ironsmith (the front face of a transforming double-faced card) +2/+2 until end of turn and then Village Ironsmith transforms into Ironfang. Ironfang will continue to get +2/+2 until end of turn.


712.19. If an effect instructs a player to choose a card name, the player may choose the name of either face of a transforming or modal double-faced card but not both. Similarly, they may choose either the name of a front face of a meld card or the combined back face of a meld pair.


712.20. If a transforming double-faced card would have an “As [this permanent] transforms . . .” ability after it transforms or converts, that ability is applied while that permanent is transforming or converting, not afterward.


712.21. If a melded permanent leaves the battlefield, one permanent leaves the battlefield and two cards are put into the appropriate zone.

Example: Chittering Host, a melded permanent, dies. An ability that triggers “whenever a creature dies” triggers once. An ability that triggers “whenever a card is put into a graveyard from anywhere” triggers twice.


712.21a If a melded permanent is put into its owner’s graveyard or library, that player may arrange the two cards in any order. If it’s put into its owner’s library, that player doesn’t reveal the order.


712.21b If a player exiles a melded permanent, that player determines the relative timestamp order of the two cards at that time. This is an exception to the procedure described in rule 613.7m.

Example: Duplicant is a card with the abilities “When Duplicant enters the battlefield, you may exile target nontoken creature” and “As long as a card exiled with Duplicant is a creature card, Duplicant has the power, toughness, and creature types of the last creature card exiled with Duplicant. It’s still a Shapeshifter.” As Duplicant’s first ability exiles Chittering Host, a melded permanent, Duplicant’s controller chooses whether the last creature card exiled is Midnight Scavengers or Graf Rats.


712.21c If an effect can find the new object that a melded permanent becomes as it leaves the battlefield, it finds both cards. (See rule 400.7.) If that effect causes actions to be taken upon those cards, the same actions are taken upon each of them.

Example: Otherworldly Journey is an instant that reads “Exile target creature. At the beginning of the next end step, return that card to the battlefield under its owner’s control with a +1/+1 counter on it.” A player casts Otherworldly Journey targeting Chittering Host, a melded permanent. Chittering Host is exiled. At the beginning of the next end step, Midnight Scavengers and Graf Rats are both returned to the battlefield, each with a +1/+1 counter on it.

Example: False Demise is an Aura with the ability “When enchanted creature dies, return that card to the battlefield under your control.” A Chittering Host enchanted by False Demise dies. The triggered ability returns both Midnight Scavengers and Graf Rats to the battlefield.

Example: Mimic Vat is an artifact that reads, in part, “Whenever a nontoken creature dies, you may exile that card.” A Chittering Host dies. As Mimic Vat’s triggered ability resolves, its controller makes a single choice and both cards that represented Chittering Host are either exiled or not.


712.21d If multiple replacement effects could be applied to the event of a melded permanent leaving the battlefield or being put into the new zone, applying one of those replacement effects to one of the two cards affects both cards. If the melded permanent is a commander, it may be exempt from this rule; see rules 903.9b–c.

Example: Leyline of the Void is an enchantment that reads, in part, “If a card would be put into an opponent’s graveyard from anywhere, exile it instead.” Wheel of Sun and Moon is an Aura with enchant player and the ability “If a card would be put into enchanted player’s graveyard from anywhere, instead that card is revealed and put on the bottom of its owner’s library.” If the controller of Chittering Host is affected by both cards’ effects, that player chooses one effect to apply to the event and Midnight Scavengers and Graf Rats are both moved to the appropriate zone.


712.21e If an effect needs to know the number of objects that changed zones, a melded permanent among those objects counts as one object that moved. If the effect needs to know the number of cards that changed zones, that melded permanent counts as two cards that moved.


713. Substitute Cards


713.1. A substitute card is a game supplement that can be used to represent a double-faced card or meld card. A substitute card has a normal Magic card back.


713.2. Each substitute card must clearly indicate the name of at least the front face of the card that it represents. Other information from the printed card (e.g. card type, mana cost, and power and toughness) may also be written on the substitute card.


713.2a Some substitute cards list the names and mana costs of the cards they can represent. Exactly one of the fill-in circles must be marked to denote which card the substitute card represents. This style of substitute card was found in Magic products that released 2011–2018.


713.2b Some substitute cards represent one specific listed card. This style of substitute card was found in the Core Set 2019 release, and it represents the card Nicol Bolas, the Ravager.


713.2c Some substitute cards can represent any modal double-faced card. These substitute cards include the front-face and back-face symbols on the front face of the card. To use one of them, write in the name of each face of the card it represents. This style of substitute card is found in the Zendikar Rising release.


713.3. If a substitute card is used in a deck, the card it represents is set aside prior to the beginning of the game (see rule 103.2a) and must remain available throughout the game. A substitute card can’t be included in a deck unless it is representing a double-faced card or a meld card.


713.4. For all game purposes, the substitute card is considered to be the card it’s representing.


713.5. If the substitute card is face up in a public zone, it should be set aside and the double-faced card or meld card that it represents should be used instead.


714. Saga Cards


714.1. Each Saga card has a striated text box containing a number of chapter symbols. Its illustration is vertically oriented on the right side of the card, and its type line is along the bottom of the card.


714.2. A chapter symbol is a keyword ability that represents a triggered ability referred to as a chapter ability.


714.2a A chapter symbol includes a Roman numeral, indicated here as “{rN}.” The numeral I represents 1, II represents 2, III represents 3, and so on.


714.2b “{rN}—[Effect]” means “When one or more lore counters are put onto this Saga, if the number of lore counters on it was less than N and became at least N, [effect].”


714.2c “{rN1}, {rN2}—[Effect]” means the same as “{rN1}—[Effect]” and “{rN2}—[Effect].”


714.2d A Saga’s final chapter number is the greatest value among chapter abilities it has. If a Saga somehow has no chapter abilities, its final chapter number is 0.


714.2e A Saga’s final chapter ability is the chapter ability which has its final chapter number in its chapter symbol.


714.3. Sagas use lore counters to track their progress.


714.3a As a Saga without the read ahead ability enters the battlefield, its controller puts a lore counter on it. As a Saga with the read ahead ability enters the battlefield, its controller chooses a number from one to that Saga’s final chapter number. That Saga enters the battlefield with the chosen number of lore counters on it. (See rule 702.155, “Read Ahead.”)


714.3b As a player’s precombat main phase begins, that player puts a lore counter on each Saga they control. This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack.


714.4. If the number of lore counters on a Saga permanent is greater than or equal to its final chapter number, and it isn’t the source of a chapter ability that has triggered but not yet left the stack, that Saga’s controller sacrifices it. This state-based action doesn’t use the stack.


715. Adventurer Cards


715.1. Adventurer cards have a two-part card frame, with a smaller frame inset within their text box.


715.2. The text that appears in the inset frame on the left defines alternative characteristics that the object may have while it’s a spell. The card’s normal characteristics appear as usual, although with a smaller text box on the right.


715.2a If an effect refers to a card, spell, or permanent that “has an Adventure,” it refers to an object for which these alternative characteristics exist, even if the object currently doesn’t use them.


715.2b The existence and values of these alternative characteristics is part of the object’s copiable values.


715.2c Although adventurer cards are printed with multiple sets of characteristics, each adventurer card is only one card. For example, a player who has drawn or discarded an adventurer card has drawn or discarded one card, not two.


715.3. As a player casts an adventurer card, the player chooses whether they cast the card normally or as an Adventure.


715.3a When casting an adventurer card as an Adventure, only the alternative characteristics are evaluated to see if it can be cast.


715.3b While on the stack as an Adventure, the spell has only its alternative characteristics.


715.3c If an Adventure spell is copied, the copy is also an Adventure. It has the alternative characteristics of the spell and not the normal characteristics of the card that represents the Adventure spell. Any rule or effect that refers to a spell cast as an Adventure refers to the copy as well.


715.3d Instead of putting a spell that was cast as an Adventure into its owner’s graveyard as it resolves, its controller exiles it. For as long as that card remains exiled, that player may cast it. It can’t be cast as an Adventure this way, although other effects that allow a player to cast it may allow a player to cast it as an Adventure.


715.4. In every zone except the stack, and while on the stack not as an Adventure, an adventurer card has only its normal characteristics.


715.5. If an effect instructs a player to choose a card name and the player wants to choose an adventurer card’s alternative name, the player may do so.


716. Class Cards


716.1. Each Class card has a striated text box containing two class level bars. Its illustration is vertically oriented on the left side of the card, and its type line is along the bottom of the card.


716.2. A class level bar is a keyword ability that represents both an activated ability and a static ability. A class level bar includes the activation cost of its activated ability and a level number. Any abilities printed within the same text box section as the class level bar are part of its static ability.


716.2a “[Cost]: Level N — [Abilities]” means “[Cost]: This Class’s level becomes N. Activate only if this Class is level N-1 and only as a sorcery” and “As long as this Class is level N or greater, it has [abilities].”


716.2b A level is a designation that any permanent can have. A Class retains its level even if it stops being a Class. Levels are not a copiable characteristic.


716.2c The phrase “to gain a Class level” means “to activate an ability indicated by a class level bar”


716.2d If a rule or effect refers to a permanent’s level and that permanent doesn’t have a level, it is treated as though its level is 1.


716.3. Any ability printed on a Class card that isn’t preceded by a class level bar is treated normally. In particular, the Class has the ability printed in its top text box section at all times. That ability may affect the game if it’s a static ability, it may trigger if it’s a triggered ability, and it can be activated if it’s an activated ability.


716.4. Some older creature cards, called leveler cards, have level up abilities that add level counters to them. These are not the same as class level abilities. Level counters do not interact with Class cards, and class levels do not interact with leveler cards. See rule 702.87, “Level Up,” and rule 711, “Leveler Cards.”


717. Attraction Cards


717.1. Attraction is an artifact subtype seen only on nontraditional Magic cards. Each Attraction has an “Astrotorium” card back rather than a traditional Magic card back and has a column of circled numbers on the right side of its text box. Numbers in white text on a brightly colored background are said to be “lit up” on those cards. Note that multiple Attraction cards with the same English name may have different numbers lit up. You can see each Attraction card’s possible combinations of lights at Gatherer.Wizards.com.


717.2. Attraction cards do not begin the game in a player’s deck and do not count toward maximum or minimum deck sizes. Rather, a player who chooses to play with Attraction cards begins the game with a supplementary Attraction deck that exists in the command zone. Each Attraction deck is shuffled before the game begins (see rule 103.3a).


717.2a In constructed play, an Attraction deck must contain at least ten Attraction cards and each card in an Attraction deck must have a different English name.


717.2b In limited play, an Attraction deck must contain at least three Attraction cards from that player’s card pool, and may contain multiple Attractions cards with the same English name.


717.3. Effects can cause an Attraction card to enter the battlefield from the command zone. See rule 701.48, “Open an Attraction.”


717.4. As a player’s precombat main phase begins, a player who controls one or more Attractions rolls to visit their Attractions. See rules 703.4g and 701.49, “Roll to Visit Your Attractions.” This turn-based action doesn’t use the stack.


717.5. Each Attraction card has an ability that begins with the word “Visit” followed by a long dash in its rules text. This is a visit ability. A visit ability triggers whenever you roll to visit your Attractions and the result matches one of the lit-up numbers. See rule 702.159, “Visit.”


717.6. If a card with an Astrotorium card back would be put into a zone other than the battlefield, exile, or the command zone from anywhere, instead its owner puts it into the command zone. This replacement effect may apply more than once to the same event. This is an exception to rule 614.5.


717.6a Each card owned by the same player that has been put in the command zone this way is kept in a single face-up pile separate from any player’s Attraction deck. This pile is informally referred to as that player’s “junkyard.” The pile is not its own zone.


718. Prototype Cards


718.1. Prototype cards have a two-part frame, with a smaller frame inset below the type line of the card. The inset frame contains the prototype keyword ability as well as a second set of power, toughness, and mana cost characteristics.


718.2. The mana cost, power, and toughness in the inset frame represent alternative characteristics that the object may have while it is a spell or while it is a permanent on the battlefield. The card’s normal characteristics appear as usual.


718.2a The existence and values of these alternative characteristics are part of the object’s copiable values.


718.3. As a player casts a prototype card, the player chooses whether they cast the card normally or cast it as a prototyped spell using the prototype keyword ability (see rule 702.160, “Prototype”).


718.3a While casting a prototyped spell, use only its alternative power, toughness, and mana cost when evaluating those characteristics to see if it can be cast.


718.3b Both a prototyped spell and the permanent it becomes have only its alternative set of power, toughness, and mana cost characteristics. If that mana cost includes one or more colored mana symbols, the spell and the permanent it becomes are also that color or colors (see rule 105.2).


718.3c If a prototyped spell is copied, the copy is also a prototyped spell. It has the alternative power, toughness, and mana cost characteristics of the spell and not the normal power, toughness, and mana cost characteristics of the card that represents the prototyped spell. Any rule or effect that refers to a prototyped spell refers to the copy as well.


718.3d If a permanent that was a prototyped spell is copied, the copy has the alternative power, toughness, and mana cost characteristics of the permanent and not the normal power and toughness characteristics of the card that represents that permanent. Any rule or effect that refers to a permanent that was a prototyped spell refers to the copy as well.


718.4. In every zone except the stack or the battlefield, and while on the stack or the battlefield when not cast as a prototyped spell, a prototype card has only its normal characteristics.


718.5. A prototype card’s characteristics other than its power, toughness, and mana cost (and other than color) remain the same whether it was cast as a prototyped spell or cast normally.


719. Case Cards


719.1. Each Case card’s illustration is vertically oriented on the left side of the card, and its type line is along the bottom of the card.


719.2. The Case frame has no additional rules meaning.


719.3. Case cards have two special keyword abilities that appear before a long dash and represent a triggered ability and an ability that may be static, triggered, or activated.


719.3a “To solve — [Condition]” means “At the beginning of your end step, if [condition] and this Case is not solved, this Case becomes solved.”


719.3b Solved is a designation a permanent can have. It has no rules meaning other than to act as a marker that spells and abilities can identify. Once a permanent becomes solved, it stays solved until it leaves the battlefield. The solved designation is neither an ability nor part of the permanent’s copiable values.


719.3c If a Case has the solved designation, “Solved — [Ability text]” is an ability that may affect the game if it’s a static ability, it may trigger if it’s a triggered ability, and it can be activated if it’s an activated ability. See rule 702.169, “Solved.”


720. Controlling Another Player


720.1. Some cards allow a player to control another player during that player’s next turn. This effect applies to the next turn that the affected player actually takes. The affected player is controlled during the entire turn; the effect doesn’t end until the beginning of the next turn.


720.1a Multiple player-controlling effects that affect the same player overwrite each other. The last one to be created is the one that works.


720.1b If a turn is skipped, any pending player-controlling effects wait until the player who would be affected actually takes a turn.


720.2. Two cards (Word of Command and Opposition Agent) allow a player to control another player for a limited duration.


720.3. Only control of the player changes. All objects are controlled by their normal controllers. A player who’s being controlled during their turn is still the active player.


720.4. If information about an object in the game would be visible to the player being controlled, it’s visible to both that player and the controller of the player. If information about cards outside the game would be visible to the player being controlled, it’s visible only to that player, not the controller of the player.

Example: The controller of a player can see that player’s hand and the face of any face-down creatures they control.


720.5. While controlling another player, a player makes all choices and decisions the controlled player is allowed to make or is told to make by the rules or by any objects. This includes choices and decisions about what to play, and choices and decisions called for by spells and abilities.

Example: The controller of another player decides which spells that player casts and what those spells target, and makes any required decisions when those spells resolve.

Example: The controller of another player decides which of that player’s creatures attack, which player or planeswalker each one attacks, what the damage assignment order of the creatures that block them is (if any of the attacking creatures are blocked by multiple creatures), and how those attacking creatures assign their combat damage.


720.5a The controller of another player can use only that player’s resources (cards, mana, and so on) to pay costs for that player.

Example: If the controller of a player decides that the controlled player will cast a spell with an additional cost of discarding cards, the cards are discarded from the controlled player’s hand.


720.5b The controller of another player can’t make choices or decisions for that player that aren’t called for by the rules or by any objects. The controller also can’t make any choices or decisions for the player that would be called for by the tournament rules.

Example: The player who’s being controlled still decides if they will leave to visit the restroom, trade a card to someone else, agree to an intentional draw, or call a judge about an error or infraction.


720.6. The controller of another player can’t make that player concede. A player may concede the game at any time, even if they are controlled by another player. See rule 104.3a.


720.7. The effect that gives control of a player to another player may restrict the actions the controlled player is allowed to take or specify actions that the controlled player must take.


720.8. A player who controls another player also continues to make their own choices and decisions.


720.9. A player may gain control of themselves. That player will make their own decisions and choices as normal.


721. Ending Turns and Phases


721.1. Some cards end the turn. When an effect ends the turn, follow these steps in order, as they differ from the normal process for resolving spells and abilities (see rule 608, “Resolving Spells and Abilities”).


721.1a If there are any triggered abilities that triggered before this process began but haven’t been put onto the stack yet, those abilities cease to exist. They won’t be put onto the stack. This rule does not apply to abilities that trigger during this process (see rule 721.1f).


721.1b Exile every object on the stack, including the object that’s resolving. All objects not on the battlefield or in the command zone that aren’t represented by cards will cease to exist the next time state-based actions are checked (see rule 704, “State-Based Actions”).


721.1c Check state-based actions. No player gets priority, and no triggered abilities are put onto the stack.


721.1d The current phase and/or step ends. If this happens during combat, remove all creatures and planeswalkers from combat. The game skips straight to the cleanup step; skip any phases or steps between this phase or step and the cleanup step. If an effect ends the turn during the cleanup step, a new cleanup step begins.


721.1e Even though the turn ends, “at the beginning of the end step” triggered abilities don’t trigger because the end step is skipped.


721.1f No player gets priority during this process, so triggered abilities are not put onto the stack. If any triggered abilities have triggered since this process began, those abilities are put onto the stack during the cleanup step, then the active player gets priority and players can cast spells and activate abilities. Then there will be another cleanup step before the turn finally ends. If no triggered abilities have triggered during this process, no player gets priority during the cleanup step. See rule 514, “Cleanup Step.”


721.2. One card (Mandate of Peace) ends the combat phase. When an effect ends the combat phase, follow these steps in order, as they differ from the normal process for resolving spells and abilities (see rule 608, “Resolving Spells and Abilities”).


721.2a If there are any triggered abilities that triggered before this process began but haven’t been put onto the stack yet, those abilities cease to exist. They won’t be put onto the stack. This rule does not apply to abilities that trigger during this process (see rule 721.2f).


721.2b Exile every object on the stack, including the object that’s resolving. All objects not on the battlefield or in the command zone that aren’t represented by cards will cease to exist the next time state-based actions are checked (see rule 704, “State-Based Actions”).


721.2c Check state-based actions. No player gets priority, and no triggered abilities are put onto the stack.


721.2d The current combat phase ends. Remove all creatures and planeswalkers from combat. Effects that last “until end of combat” expire. The game skips straight to the next phase, usually the postcombat main phase; skip any steps between this step and that phase.


721.2e Even though the combat phase ends, “at end of combat” triggered abilities don’t trigger because the end of combat step is skipped.


721.2f No player gets priority during this process, so triggered abilities are not put onto the stack. If any triggered abilities have triggered since this process began, those abilities are put onto the stack during the following phase, then the active player gets priority and players can cast spells and activate abilities.


721.2g If an effect attempts to end the combat phase at any time that’s not a combat phase, nothing happens.


722. The Monarch


722.1. The monarch is a designation a player can have. There is no monarch in a game until an effect instructs a player to become the monarch.


722.2. There are two inherent triggered abilities associated with being the monarch. These triggered abilities have no source and are controlled by the player who was the monarch at the time the abilities triggered. This is an exception to rule 113.8. The full texts of these abilities are “At the beginning of the monarch’s end step, that player draws a card” and “Whenever a creature deals combat damage to the monarch, its controller becomes the monarch.”


722.3. Only one player can be the monarch at a time. As a player becomes the monarch, the current monarch ceases to be the monarch.


722.4. If the monarch leaves the game, the active player becomes the monarch at the same time as that player leaves the game. If the active player is leaving the game or if there is no active player, the next player in turn order becomes the monarch. If no player still in the game can become the monarch, the game continues with no monarch.


722.5. If the result of a continuous effect generated by a static ability is determined based on who is currently the monarch, but there is no monarch in the game as that effect begins to apply, that effect does nothing until a player becomes the monarch. See rule 613, “Continuous Effects.”


723. The Initiative


723.1. The initiative is a designation a player can have. There is no initiative in a game until an effect instructs a player to take the initiative. A player who currently has the initiative designation is said to have the initiative.


723.2. There are three inherent triggered abilities associated with having the initiative. These triggered abilities have no source and are controlled by the player who had the initiative at the time the abilities triggered. This is an exception to rule 113.8. The full text of these abilities are “At the beginning of the upkeep of the player who has the initiative, that player ventures into Undercity,” “Whenever one or more creatures a player controls deal combat damage to the player who has the initiative, the controller of those creatures takes the initiative,” and “Whenever a player takes the initiative, that player ventures into Undercity.” See rule 701.46, “Venture into the Dungeon.”


723.3. Only one player can have the initiative at a time. As a player takes the initiative, the player who currently has the initiative ceases to have it.


723.4. If the player who has the initiative leaves the game, the active player takes the initiative at the same time that player leaves the game. If the active player is leaving the game or if there is no active player, the next player in turn order takes the initiative.


723.5. If the player who currently has the initiative is instructed to take the initiative, this causes the last triggered ability in 723.2 to trigger but does not create a second initiative designation.


724. Restarting the Game


724.1. One card (Karn Liberated) restarts the game. A game that is restarted immediately ends. No players in that game win, lose, or draw that game. All players in that game when it ended then start a new game following the procedures set forth in rule 103, “Starting the Game,” with the following exception:


724.1a The starting player in the new game is the player who controlled the spell or ability that restarted the game.


724.2. All Magic cards involved in the game that was restarted when it ended, including phased-out permanents and nontraditional Magic cards, are involved in the new game, even if those cards were not originally involved in the restarted game. Ownership of cards in the new game doesn’t change, regardless of their location when the new game begins.

Example: A player casts Living Wish, bringing a creature card into the game from outside the game. Then that game is restarted. The creature card will be part of that player’s library when the new game begins.


724.3. Because each player draws seven cards when the new game begins, any player with fewer than seven cards in their library will lose the game when state-based actions are checked during the upkeep step of the first turn, regardless of any mulligans that player takes. (See rule 704, “State-Based Actions.”)


724.4. The effect that restarts the game finishes resolving just before the first turn’s untap step. If the spell or ability that generated that effect has additional instructions, those instructions are followed at this time. No player has priority, and any triggered abilities that trigger as a result will go on the stack the next time a player receives priority, usually during the first turn’s upkeep step.


724.5. Effects may exempt certain cards from the procedure that restarts the game. These cards are not in their owner’s deck as the new game begins.


724.5a In a Commander game, a commander that has been exempted from the procedure that restarts the game won’t begin the new game in the command zone. However, it remains that deck’s commander for the new game. See rule 903, “Commander.”


724.6. If a Magic subgame (see rule 724) is restarted, the main game is unaffected. Main-game effects that refer to the winner or loser of the subgame now refer to the winner or loser of the restarted subgame.


724.7. If a multiplayer game using the limited range of influence option (see rule 801) is restarted, all players in the game are involved, regardless of the range of influence of the player who controls the ability that restarted the game.


725. Rad Counters


725.1. Rad counters are a kind of counter a player can have (see rule 122, “Counters”). There is an inherent triggered ability associated with rad counters. This ability has no source and is controlled by the active player. This is an exception to rule 113.8. The full text of this ability is “At the beginning of each player’s precombat main phase, if that player has one or more rad counters, that player mills a number of cards equal to the number of rad counters they have. For each nonland card milled this way, that player loses 1 life and removes one rad counter from themselves.”


725.1a A card that refers to life loss “from radiation” refers to life lost as a result of the triggered ability associated with rad counters.


726. Subgames


726.1. One card (Shahrazad) allows players to play a Magic subgame.


726.1a A “subgame” is a completely separate Magic game created by an effect. Essentially, it’s a game within a game. The “main game” is the game in which the spell or ability that created the subgame was cast or activated. The main game is temporarily discontinued while the subgame is in progress. It resumes when the subgame ends.


726.1b No effects or definitions created in either the main game or the subgame have any meaning in the other, except as defined by the effect that created the subgame. For example, the effect may say that something happens in the main game to the winner or loser of the subgame.


726.2. As the subgame starts, an entirely new set of game zones is created. Each player takes all the cards in their main-game library, moves them to their subgame library, and shuffles them. No other cards in a main-game zone are moved to their corresponding subgame zone, except as specified in rules 726.2a–c. Randomly determine which player goes first. The subgame proceeds like a normal game, following all other rules in rule 103, “Starting the Game.”


726.2a As a subgame begins, if one or more supplementary decks of nontraditional cards are being used, each player moves each of their supplementary decks from the main-game command zone to the subgame command zone and shuffles it. (Face-up nontraditional cards remain in the main-game command zone.)


726.2b As a subgame of a Vanguard game starts, each player moves their vanguard card from the main-game command zone to the subgame command zone.


726.2c As a subgame of a Commander game starts, each player moves their commander from the main-game command zone (if it’s there) to the subgame command zone.


726.3. Because each player draws seven cards when a game begins, any player with fewer than seven cards in their deck will lose the subgame when state-based actions are checked during the upkeep step of the first turn, regardless of any mulligans that player takes. (See rule 704, “State-Based Actions.”)


726.4. All objects in the main game and all cards outside the main game are considered outside the subgame (except those specifically brought into the subgame). All players not currently in the subgame are considered outside the subgame.


726.4a Some effects can bring cards into a game from outside of it. If a card is brought into a subgame from a main game, abilities in the main game that trigger on objects leaving a main-game zone will trigger, but they won’t be put onto the stack until the main game resumes.


726.4b A player’s main-game counters aren’t considered part of the subgame, although the player will still have them when the main game resumes. Similarly, any counters a player gets during a subgame will cease to exist when the subgame ends.


726.5. At the end of a subgame, each player takes all traditional cards they own that are in the subgame other than those in the subgame command zone, puts them into their main-game library, then shuffles them. This includes cards in the subgame’s exile zone and cards that represent phased-out permanents as the subgame ends. Except as specified in rules 726.5a–c, all other objects in the subgame cease to exist, as do the zones created for the subgame. The main game continues from the point at which it was discontinued: First, the spell or ability that created the subgame finishes resolving, even if it was created by a spell card that’s no longer on the stack. Then, if any main-game abilities triggered while the subgame was in progress due to cards being removed from the main game, those abilities are put onto the stack.

Example: If a card was brought into the subgame either from the main game or from outside the main game, that card will be put into its owner’s main-game library when the subgame ends.


726.5a At the end of a subgame, each nontraditional card not in a supplementary deck that began the subgame in a supplementary deck is turned face down and put on the bottom of that deck. Then each player moves each of their supplementary decks from the subgame command zone to the main-game command zone and shuffles it.


726.5b At the end of a subgame of a Vanguard game, each player moves their vanguard card from the subgame command zone to the main-game command zone. This is an exception to rule 313.2.


726.5c At the end of a subgame of a Commander game, each player moves their commander from the subgame command zone (if it’s there) to the main-game command zone.


726.6. A subgame can be created within a subgame. The existing subgame becomes the main game in relation to the new subgame.


727. Merging with Permanents


727.1. One keyword causes an object to merge with a permanent. See rule 702.140, “Mutate.”


727.2. To merge an object with a permanent, place that object on top of or under that permanent. That permanent becomes a merged permanent represented by the card or copy that represented that object in addition to any other components that were representing it.


727.2a A merged permanent has only the characteristics of its topmost component, unless otherwise specified by the effect that caused them to merge. This is a copiable effect whose timestamp is the time the objects merged. (See rule 613.2.)


727.2b As an object merges with a permanent, that object leaves its previous zone and becomes part of an object on the battlefield, but the resulting permanent isn’t considered to have just entered the battlefield.


727.2c Because a merged permanent is the same object that it was before, it hasn’t just come under a player’s control, any continuous effects that affected it continue to do so, and so on.


727.2d If a merged permanent contains a token, the resulting permanent is a token only if the topmost component is a token.


727.2e If a merged permanent contains face-up and face-down components, the permanent’s status is determined by its topmost component. If a face-down permanent becomes a face-up permanent as a result of an object merging with it, other effects don’t count it as being turned face up.


727.2f If a merged permanent is turned face down, each face-up component that represents it is turned face down. If a face-down merged permanent is turned face up, each face-down component that represents it is turned face up.


727.2g A face-down merged permanent that contains an instant or sorcery card can’t be turned face up. If such a permanent would turn face up, its controller reveals it and leaves it face down. Abilities that trigger when a permanent is turned face up won’t trigger.


727.2h If a merged permanent contains a flip card (see rule 710), that component’s alternative characteristics are used instead of its normal characteristics if the merged permanent is flipped.


727.2i A merged permanent is not a double-faced permanent even if it contains one or more double-faced components. If a merged permanent contains one or more transforming double-faced components (see rule 712), transforming that permanent causes each of those double-faced components to turn so that its other face is up.


727.2j A face-up merged permanent that contains a double-faced component can’t be turned face down.


727.3. If a merged permanent leaves the battlefield, one permanent leaves the battlefield and each of the individual components are put into the appropriate zone.


727.3a If a merged permanent is put into its owner’s graveyard or library, that player may arrange the new objects in any order. If it’s put into its owner’s library, that player doesn’t reveal the order.


727.3b If a player exiles a merged permanent, that player determines the relative timestamp order of the cards at that time. This is an exception to the procedure described in rule 613.7m.


727.3c If an effect can find the new object that a merged permanent becomes as it leaves the battlefield, it finds all of those objects. (See rule 400.7.) If that effect causes actions to be taken upon those objects, the same actions are taken upon each of them.


727.3d If multiple replacement effects could be applied to the event of a merged permanent leaving the battlefield or being put into the new zone, applying one of those replacement effects to the object applies it to all components of the object. If the merged permanent is a commander, it may be exempt from this rule; see rules 903.9b–c.


727.3e If a replacement effect applies to a “card” being put into a zone without also including tokens, that effect applies to all components of the merged permanent if it’s not a token, including components that are tokens. If the merged permanent is a token but some of its components are cards, the merged permanent and its token components are put into the appropriate zone, and the components that are cards are moved by the replacement effect.


728. Day and Night


728.1. Day and night are designations that the game itself can have. The game starts with neither designation. “It becomes day” and “it becomes night” refer to the game gaining the day or night designation. It can become day or night through the daybound and nightbound keyword abilities (see rule 702.145). Other effects can also make it day or night. Once it has become day or night, the game will have exactly one of those designations from that point forward.


728.1a The phrases “day becomes night” and “night becomes day” refer to the game losing the first designation and gaining the second one.


728.2. As the second part of the untap step, the game checks the previous turn to see if the game’s day/night designation should change. See rule 502, “Untap Step.”


728.2a If it’s day and the previous turn’s active player didn’t cast any spells during that turn, it becomes night. Multiplayer games using the shared team turns option (see rule 805) use a modified rule: if it’s day and no player from the previous turn’s active team cast a spell during that turn, it becomes night.


728.2b If it’s night, and previous turn’s active player cast two or more spells during the previous turn, it becomes day. Multiplayer games using the shared team turns option (see rule 805) use a modified rule: if it’s night and any player from the previous turn’s active team cast two or more spells during that turn, it becomes day.


728.2c If it’s neither day nor night, this check doesn’t happen and it remains neither.


729. Taking Shortcuts


729.1. When playing a game, players typically make use of mutually understood shortcuts rather than explicitly identifying each game choice (either taking an action or passing priority) a player makes.


729.1a The rules for taking shortcuts are largely informal. As long as each player in the game understands the intent of each other player, any shortcut system they use is acceptable.


729.1b Occasionally the game gets into a state in which a set of actions could be repeated indefinitely (thus creating a “loop”). In that case, the shortcut rules can be used to determine how many times those actions are repeated without having to actually perform them, and how the loop is broken.


729.1c Tournaments use a modified version of the rules governing shortcuts and loops. These rules are covered in the Magic: The Gathering Tournament Rules (found at WPN.Wizards.com/en/resources/rules-documents). Whenever the Tournament Rules contradict these rules during a tournament, the Tournament Rules take precedence.


729.2. Taking a shortcut follows the following procedure.


729.2a At any point in the game, the player with priority may suggest a shortcut by describing a sequence of game choices, for all players, that may be legally taken based on the current game state and the predictable results of the sequence of choices. This sequence may be a non-repetitive series of choices, a loop that repeats a specified number of times, multiple loops, or nested loops, and may even cross multiple turns. It can’t include conditional actions, where the outcome of a game event determines the next action a player takes. The ending point of this sequence must be a place where a player has priority, though it need not be the player proposing the shortcut.

Example: A player controls a creature enchanted by Presence of Gond, which grants the creature the ability “{T}: Create a 1/1 green Elf Warrior creature token,” and another player controls Intruder Alarm, which reads, in part, “Whenever a creature enters the battlefield, untap all creatures.” When the player has priority, they may suggest “I’ll create a million tokens,” indicating the sequence of activating the creature’s ability, all players passing priority, letting the creature’s ability resolve and create a token (which causes Intruder Alarm’s ability to trigger), Intruder Alarm’s controller putting that triggered ability on the stack, all players passing priority, Intruder Alarm’s triggered ability resolving, all players passing priority until the player proposing the shortcut has priority, and repeating that sequence 999,999 more times, ending just after the last token-creating ability resolves.


729.2b Each other player, in turn order starting after the player who suggested the shortcut, may either accept the proposed sequence, or shorten it by naming a place where they will make a game choice that’s different than what’s been proposed. (The player doesn’t need to specify at this time what the new choice will be.) This place becomes the new ending point of the proposed sequence.

Example: The active player draws a card during her draw step, then says, “Go.” The nonactive player is holding Into the Fray (an instant that says “Target creature attacks this turn if able”) and says, “I’d like to cast a spell during your beginning of combat step.” The current proposed shortcut is that all players pass priority at all opportunities during the turn until the nonactive player has priority during the beginning of combat step.


729.2c Once the last player has either accepted or shortened the shortcut proposal, the shortcut is taken. The game advances to the last proposed ending point, with all game choices contained in the shortcut proposal having been taken. If the shortcut was shortened from the original proposal, the player who now has priority must make a different game choice than what was originally proposed for that player.


729.3. Sometimes a loop can be fragmented, meaning that each player involved in the loop performs an independent action that results in the same game state being reached multiple times. If that happens, the active player (or, if the active player is not involved in the loop, the first player in turn order who is involved) must then make a different game choice so the loop does not continue.

Example: In a two-player game, the active player controls a creature with the ability “{0}: [This creature] gains flying,” the nonactive player controls a permanent with the ability “{0}: Target creature loses flying,” and nothing in the game cares how many times an ability has been activated. Say the active player activates his creature’s ability, it resolves, then the nonactive player activates her permanent’s ability targeting that creature, and it resolves. This returns the game to a game state it was at before. The active player must make a different game choice (in other words, anything other than activating that creature’s ability again). The creature doesn’t have flying. Note that the nonactive player could have prevented the fragmented loop simply by not activating her permanent’s ability, in which case the creature would have had flying. The nonactive player always has the final choice and is therefore able to determine whether the creature has flying.


729.4. If a loop contains only mandatory actions, the game is a draw. (See rules 104.4b and 104.4f.)


729.5. No player can be forced to perform an action that would end a loop other than actions called for by objects involved in the loop.

Example: A player controls Seal of Cleansing, an enchantment that reads, “Sacrifice Seal of Cleansing: Destroy target artifact or enchantment.” A mandatory loop that involves an artifact begins. The player is not forced to sacrifice Seal of Cleansing to destroy the artifact and end the loop.


729.6. If a loop contains an effect that says “[A] unless [B],” where [A] and [B] are each actions, no player can be forced to perform [B] to break the loop. If no player chooses to perform [B], the loop will continue as though [A] were mandatory.


730. Handling Illegal Actions


730.1. If a player takes an illegal action or starts to take an action but can’t legally complete it, the entire action is reversed and any payments already made are canceled. No abilities trigger and no effects apply as a result of an undone action. If the action was casting a spell, the spell returns to the zone it came from. Each player may also reverse any legal mana abilities that player activated while making the illegal play, unless mana from those abilities or from any triggered mana abilities they caused to trigger was spent on another mana ability that wasn’t reversed. Players may not reverse actions that moved cards to a library, moved cards from a library to any zone other than the stack, caused a library to be shuffled, or caused cards from a library to be revealed.


730.2. When reversing illegal spells and abilities, the player who had priority retains it and may take another action or pass. The player may redo the reversed action in a legal way or take any other action allowed by the rules.


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