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Magic: The Gathering Rules - 7. Additional Rules - Keyword Actions

Updated: 5 days ago


Vishgraz - Magic The Gathering

Image Credit: Andrew Mar/Wizards of The Coast


701. Keyword Actions


701.1. Most actions described in a card’s rules text use the standard English definitions of the verbs within, but some specialized verbs are used whose meanings may not be clear. These “keywords” are game terms; sometimes reminder text summarizes their meanings.


701.2. Activate


701.2a To activate an activated ability is to put it onto the stack and pay its costs, so that it will eventually resolve and have its effect. Only an object’s controller (or its owner, if it doesn’t have a controller) can activate its activated ability unless the object specifically says otherwise. A player may activate an ability if they have priority. See rule 602, “Activating Activated Abilities.”


701.3. Attach


701.3a To attach an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification to an object or player means to take it from where it currently is and put it onto that object or player. If something is attached to a permanent on the battlefield, it’s customary to place it so that it’s physically touching the permanent. An Aura, Equipment, or Fortification can’t be attached to an object or player it couldn’t enchant, equip, or fortify, respectively.


701.3b If an effect tries to attach an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification to an object or player it can’t be attached to, the Aura, Equipment, or Fortification doesn’t move. If an effect tries to attach an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification to the object or player it’s already attached to, the effect does nothing. If an effect tries to attach an object that isn’t an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification to another object or player, the effect does nothing and the first object doesn’t move.


701.3c Attaching an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification on the battlefield to a different object or player causes the Aura, Equipment, or Fortification to receive a new timestamp.


701.3d To “unattach” an Equipment from a creature means to move it away from that creature so the Equipment is on the battlefield but is not equipping anything. It should no longer be physically touching any creature. If an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification that was attached to an object or player ceases to be attached to it, that counts as “becoming unattached [from that object or player]”; this includes if that Aura, Equipment, or Fortification leaves the battlefield, the object leaves the zone it was in, or that player leaves the game.


701.4. Cast


701.4a To cast a spell is to take it from the zone it’s in (usually the hand), put it on the stack, and pay its costs, so that it will eventually resolve and have its effect. A player may cast a spell if they have priority. See rule 601, “Casting Spells.”


701.4b To cast a card is to cast it as a spell.


701.5. Counter


701.5a To counter a spell or ability means to cancel it, removing it from the stack. It doesn’t resolve and none of its effects occur. A countered spell is put into its owner’s graveyard.


701.5b The player who cast a countered spell or activated a countered ability doesn’t get a “refund” of any costs that were paid.


701.6. Create


701.6a To create one or more tokens with certain characteristics, put the specified number of tokens with the specified characteristics onto the battlefield.


701.6b If a replacement effect applies to a token being created, that effect applies before considering any continuous effects that will modify the characteristics of that token. If a replacement effect applies to a token entering the battlefield, that effect applies after considering any continuous effects that will modify the characteristics of that token.


701.6c Previously, an effect that created tokens instructed a player to “put [those tokens] onto the battlefield.” Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference so they now “create” those tokens.


701.7. Destroy

 

701.7a To destroy a permanent, move it from the battlefield to its owner’s graveyard.


701.7b The only ways a permanent can be destroyed are as a result of an effect that uses the word “destroy” or as a result of the state-based actions that check for lethal damage (see rule 704.5g) or damage from a source with deathtouch (see rule 704.5h). If a permanent is put into its owner’s graveyard for any other reason, it hasn’t been “destroyed.”


701.7c A regeneration effect replaces a destruction event. See rule 701.15, “Regenerate.”


701.8. Discard


701.8a To discard a card, move it from its owner’s hand to that player’s graveyard.


701.8b By default, effects that cause a player to discard a card allow the affected player to choose which card to discard. Some effects, however, require a random discard or allow another player to choose which card is discarded.


701.8c If a card is discarded, but an effect causes it to be put into a hidden zone instead of into its owner’s graveyard without being revealed, all values of that card’s characteristics are considered to be undefined. If a card is discarded this way to pay a cost that specifies a characteristic about the discarded card, that cost payment is illegal; the game returns to the moment before the cost was paid (see rule 730, “Handling Illegal Actions”).


701.9. Double


701.9a Doubling a creature’s power and/or toughness creates a continuous effect. This effect modifies that creature’s power and/or toughness but doesn’t set those characteristics to a specific value. See rule 613.4c.


701.9b To double a creature’s power, that creature gets +X/+0, where X is that creature’s power as the spell or ability that doubles its power resolves. Similarly, an effect that doubles a creature’s toughness gives it +0/+X, where X is that creature’s toughness. Doubling a creature’s power and toughness gives it +X/+Y, where X is its power and Y is its toughness.


701.9c If a creature’s power is less than 0 when it’s doubled, doubling that creature’s power instead means that the creature gets -X/-0, where X is the difference between 0 and its power. Similarly, if its toughness is less than 0 when doubled, it gets -0/-X. If one characteristic’s value is negative but the other isn’t when both are doubled, it gets -X/+Y or +X/-Y, as appropriate.


701.9d To double a player’s life total, the player gains or loses an amount of life such that their new life total is twice its current value.


701.9e To double the number of a kind of counters on a player or permanent, give that player or permanent as many of those counters as that player or permanent already has.


701.9f To double the amount of a type of mana in a player’s mana pool, that player adds an amount of mana of that type equal to the amount they already have.


701.10. Exchange


701.10a A spell or ability may instruct players to exchange something (for example, life totals or control of two permanents) as part of its resolution. When such a spell or ability resolves, if the entire exchange can’t be completed, no part of the exchange occurs.

Example: If a spell attempts to exchange control of two target creatures but one of those creatures is destroyed before the spell resolves, the spell does nothing to the other creature.


701.10b When control of two permanents is exchanged, if those permanents are controlled by different players, each of those players simultaneously gains control of the permanent that was controlled by the other player. If, on the other hand, those permanents are controlled by the same player, the exchange effect does nothing.


701.10c When life totals are exchanged, each player gains or loses the amount of life necessary to equal the other player’s previous life total. Replacement effects may modify these gains and losses, and triggered abilities may trigger on them. A player who can’t gain life can’t be given a higher life total this way, and a player who can’t lose life can’t be given a lower life total this way (see rules 119.7–8).


701.10d Some spells or abilities may instruct a player to exchange cards in one zone with cards in a different zone (for example, exiled cards and cards in a player’s hand). These spells and abilities work the same as other “exchange” spells and abilities, except they can exchange the cards only if all the cards are owned by the same player, and they can exchange the cards even if one zone is empty.


701.10e If a card in one zone is exchanged with a card in a different zone, and either of them is attached to an object, that card stops being attached to that object and the other card becomes attached to that object.


701.10f If a spell or ability instructs a player to simply exchange two zones, and one of the zones is empty, the cards in the zones are still exchanged.


701.10g A spell or ability may instruct a player to exchange two numerical values. In such an exchange, each value becomes equal to the previous value of the other. If either of those values is a life total, the affected player gains or loses the amount of life necessary to equal the other value. Replacement effects may modify this gain or loss, and triggered abilities may trigger on it. A player who can’t gain life can’t be given a higher life total this way, and a player who can’t lose life can’t be given a lower life total this way (see rules 119.7–8). If either of those values is a power or toughness, a continuous effect is created setting that power or toughness to the other value (see rule 613.4b). This rule does not apply to spells and abilities that switch a creature’s power and toughness.


701.10h One card (Exchange of Words) instructs a player to exchange the text boxes of two creatures. This creates a text-changing effect (see rule 612, “Text-Changing Effects”). In such an exchange, the rules text of each permanent becomes the previous rules text of the other.


701.11. Exile


701.11a To exile an object, move it to the exile zone from wherever it is. See rule 406, “Exile.”


701.12. Fight


701.12a A spell or ability may instruct a creature to fight another creature or it may instruct two creatures to fight each other. Each of those creatures deals damage equal to its power to the other creature.


701.12b If one or both creatures instructed to fight are no longer on the battlefield or are no longer creatures, neither of them fights or deals damage. If one or both creatures are illegal targets for a resolving spell or ability that instructs them to fight, neither of them fights or deals damage.


701.12c If a creature fights itself, it deals damage to itself equal to twice its power.


701.12d The damage dealt when a creature fights isn’t combat damage.


701.13. Mill


701.13a For a player to mill a number of cards, that player puts that many cards from the top of their library into their graveyard.


701.13b A player can’t mill a number of cards greater than the number of cards in their library. If given the choice to do so, they can’t choose to take that action. If instructed to do so, they mill as many as possible. Similarly, the player can’t pay a cost that includes milling a number of cards greater than the number of cards in their library.


701.13c An effect that refers to a milled card can find that card in the zone it moved to from the library, as long as that zone is a public zone.


701.13d If an ability checks information about a single milled card but more than one card was milled, that ability refers to each of the milled cards. If that ability asks for any information about the milled card, such as a characteristic or mana value, it gets multiple answers. If these answers are used to determine the value of a variable, the sum of the answers is used. If that ability performs any actions on “the” card, it performs that action on each milled card. If that ability performs any actions on “a” card, the controller of the ability chooses which card is affected.


701.14. Play


701.14a To play a land means to put it onto the battlefield from the zone it’s in (usually the hand). A player may play a land if they have priority, it’s the main phase of their turn, the stack is empty, and they haven’t played a land this turn. Playing a land is a special action (see rule 116), so it doesn’t use the stack; it simply happens. Putting a land onto the battlefield as the result of a spell or ability isn’t the same as playing a land. See rule 305, “Lands.”


701.14b To play a card means to play that card as a land or to cast that card as a spell, whichever is appropriate.


701.14c Some effects instruct a player to “play” with a certain aspect of the game changed, such as “Play with the top card of your library revealed.” “Play” in this sense means to play the Magic game.


701.14d Previously, the action of casting a spell, or casting a card as a spell, was referred to on cards as “playing” that spell or that card. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference so they now refer to “casting” that spell or that card.


701.14e Previously, the action of using an activated ability was referred to on cards as “playing” that ability. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference so they now refer to “activating” that ability.


701.15. Regenerate


701.15a If the effect of a resolving spell or ability regenerates a permanent, it creates a replacement effect that protects the permanent the next time it would be destroyed this turn. In this case, “Regenerate [permanent]” means “The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn, instead remove all damage marked on it and its controller taps it. If it’s an attacking or blocking creature, remove it from combat.”


701.15b If the effect of a static ability regenerates a permanent, it replaces destruction with an alternate effect each time that permanent would be destroyed. In this case, “Regenerate [permanent]” means “Instead remove all damage marked on [permanent] and its controller taps it. If it’s an attacking or blocking creature, remove it from combat.”


701.15c Neither activating an ability that creates a regeneration shield nor casting a spell that creates a regeneration shield is the same as regenerating a permanent. Effects that say that a permanent can’t be regenerated don’t preclude such abilities from being activated or such spells from being cast; rather, they cause regeneration shields to not be applied.


701.16. Reveal


701.16a To reveal a card, show that card to all players for a brief time. If an effect causes a card to be revealed, it remains revealed for as long as necessary to complete the parts of the effect that card is relevant to. If the cost to cast a spell or activate an ability includes revealing a card, the card remains revealed from the time the spell or ability is announced until the time it leaves the stack. If revealing a card causes a triggered ability to trigger, the card remains revealed until that triggered ability leaves the stack. If that ability isn’t put onto the stack the next time a player would receive priority, the card ceases to be revealed.


701.16b Revealing a card doesn’t cause it to leave the zone it’s in.


701.16c If cards in a player’s library are shuffled or otherwise reordered, any revealed cards that are reordered stop being revealed and become new objects.


701.16d Some effects instruct a player to look at one or more cards. Looking at a card follows the same rules as revealing a card, except that the card is shown only to the specified player.


701.17. Sacrifice


701.17a To sacrifice a permanent, its controller moves it from the battlefield directly to its owner’s graveyard. A player can’t sacrifice something that isn’t a permanent, or something that’s a permanent they don’t control. Sacrificing a permanent doesn’t destroy it, so regeneration or other effects that replace destruction can’t affect this action.


701.18. Scry


701.18a To “scry N” means to look at the top N cards of your library, then put any number of them on the bottom of your library in any order and the rest on top of your library in any order.


701.18b If a player is instructed to scry 0, no scry event occurs. Abilities that trigger whenever a player scries won’t trigger.


701.18c If multiple players scry at once, each of those players looks at the top cards of their library at the same time. Those players decide in APNAP order (see rule 101.4) where to put those cards, then those cards move at the same time.


701.18d An ability that triggers whenever a player scries triggers after the process described in rule 701.18a is complete, even if some or all of those actions were impossible.


701.19. Search


701.19a To search for a card in a zone, look at all cards in that zone (even if it’s a hidden zone) and find a card that matches the given description.


701.19b If a player is searching a hidden zone for cards with a stated quality, such as a card with a certain card type or color, that player isn’t required to find some or all of those cards even if they’re present in that zone.

Example: Splinter says “Exile target artifact. Search its controller’s graveyard, hand, and library for all cards with the same name as that artifact and exile them. Then that player shuffles their library.” A player casts Splinter targeting Howling Mine (an artifact). Howling Mine’s controller has another Howling Mine in her graveyard and two more in her library. Splinter’s controller must find the Howling Mine in the graveyard, but may choose to find zero, one, or two of the Howling Mines in the library.


701.19c If a player is instructed to search a hidden zone for cards that match an undefined quality, that player may still search that zone but can’t find any cards.

Example: Lobotomy says “Target player reveals their hand, then you choose a card other than a basic land card from it. Search that player’s graveyard, hand, and library for all cards with the same name as the chosen card and exile them. Then that player shuffles their library.” If the target player has no cards in their hand when Lobotomy resolves, the player who cast Lobotomy searches the specified zones but doesn’t exile any cards.


701.19d If a player is searching a hidden zone simply for a quantity of cards, such as “a card” or “three cards,” that player must find that many cards (or as many as possible, if the zone doesn’t contain enough cards).


701.19e If the effect that contains the search instruction doesn’t also contain instructions to reveal the found card(s), then they’re not revealed.


701.19f If searching a zone is replaced with searching a portion of that zone, any other instructions that refer to searching the zone still apply. Any abilities that trigger on a library being searched will trigger.

Example: Aven Mindcensor says, in part, “If an opponent would search a library, that player searches the top four cards of that library instead.” Veteran Explorer says “When Veteran Explorer dies, each player may search their library for up to two basic land cards and put them onto the battlefield. Then each player who searched their library this way shuffles it.” An opponent who searched the top four cards of their library because of Veteran Explorer’s ability would shuffle the entire library.


701.19g If an effect offers a player a choice to search a zone and take additional actions with the cards found, that player may choose to search even if the additional actions are illegal or impossible.


701.19h An effect may instruct a player to search a library for one or more cards more than once before instructing a player to shuffle that library. This is the same as a single instruction for that player to search that library for all those cards. The player searches that library only once.


701.19i If multiple players search at once, each of those players looks at the appropriate cards at the same time, then those players decide in APNAP order (see rule 101.4) which card to find.


701.19j If an effect instructs a player to search outside the game for a card, that player may choose an appropriate card they own from outside the game.


701.20. Shuffle


701.20a To shuffle a library or a face-down pile of cards, randomize the cards within it so that no player knows their order.


701.20b Some effects cause a player to search a library for a card or cards, shuffle that library, then put some or all of the found cards into a different zone or in a certain position in that library. In such cases, the found cards aren’t included in the shuffle, even though they remain in the library at that time. Rather, all the cards in that library except those are shuffled. Abilities that trigger when a library is shuffled will still trigger. See also rule 401, “Library.”


701.20c If an effect would cause a player to shuffle one or more specific objects into a library, that library is shuffled even if none of those objects are in the zone they’re expected to be in or an effect causes all of those objects to be moved to another zone or remain in their current zone.

Example: Guile says, in part, “When Guile is put into a graveyard from anywhere, shuffle it into its owner’s library.” It’s put into a graveyard and its ability triggers, then a player exiles it from that graveyard in response. When the ability resolves, the library is shuffled.

Example: Black Sun’s Zenith says, in part, “Shuffle Black Sun’s Zenith into its owner’s library.” Black Sun’s Zenith is in a graveyard, has gained flashback (due to Recoup, perhaps), and is cast from that graveyard. Black Sun’s Zenith will be exiled, and its owner’s library will be shuffled.


701.20d If an effect would cause a player to shuffle a set of objects into a library, that library is shuffled even if there are no objects in that set.

Example: Loaming Shaman says “When Loaming Shaman enters the battlefield, target player shuffles any number of target cards from their graveyard into their library.” It enters the battlefield, its ability triggers, and no cards are targeted. When the ability resolves, the targeted player will still have to shuffle their library.


701.20e If an effect causes a player to shuffle a library containing zero or one cards, abilities that trigger when a library is shuffled will still trigger.


701.20f If two or more effects cause a library to be shuffled multiple times simultaneously, abilities that trigger when that library is shuffled will trigger that many times.


701.20g If an effect would cause a player to shuffle a library at the same time that an object would be put into a certain position in that library, the result is a shuffled library that’s randomized except that the object is in the specified position.

Example: Darksteel Colossus and Gravebane Zombie are put into a player’s graveyard from the battlefield at the same time. Darksteel Colossus says in part “If Darksteel Colossus would be put into a graveyard from anywhere, reveal Darksteel Colossus and shuffle it into its owner’s library instead.” Gravebane Zombie says “If Gravebane Zombie would die, put Gravebane Zombie on top of its owner’s library instead.” The player shuffles Darksteel Colossus into their library and puts Gravebane Zombie on top of that library.


701.21. Tap and Untap


701.21a To tap a permanent, turn it sideways from an upright position. Only untapped permanents can be tapped.


701.21b To untap a permanent, rotate it back to the upright position from a sideways position. Only tapped permanents can be untapped.


701.22. Fateseal


701.22a To “fateseal N” means to look at the top N cards of an opponent’s library, then put any number of them on the bottom of that library in any order and the rest on top of that library in any order.


701.23. Clash


701.23a To clash, a player reveals the top card of their library. That player may then put that card on the bottom of their library.


701.23b “Clash with an opponent” means “Choose an opponent. You and that opponent each clash.”


701.23c Each clashing player reveals the top card of their library at the same time. Then those players decide in APNAP order (see rule 101.4) where to put those cards, then those cards move at the same time.


701.23d A player wins a clash if that player revealed a card with a higher mana value than all other cards revealed in that clash.


701.24. Planeswalk


701.24a A player may planeswalk only during a Planechase game. Only the planar controller may planeswalk. See rule 901, “Planechase.”


701.24b To planeswalk is to put each face-up plane card and phenomenon card on the bottom of its owner’s planar deck face down, then move the top card of your planar deck off that planar deck and turn it face up.


701.24c A player may planeswalk as the result of the “planeswalking ability” (see rule 901.8), because the owner of a face-up plane card or phenomenon card leaves the game (see rule 901.10), or because a phenomenon’s triggered ability leaves the stack (see rule 704.6f). Abilities may also instruct a player to planeswalk.


701.24d The plane card that’s turned face up is the plane the player planeswalks to. The plane card that’s turned face down or that leaves the game is the plane the player planeswalks away from. The same is true with respect to phenomena.


701.25. Set in Motion


701.25a Only a scheme card may be set in motion, and only during an Archenemy game. Only the archenemy may set a scheme card in motion. See rule 314, “Schemes,” and rule 904, “Archenemy.”


701.25b To set a scheme in motion, move it off the top of your scheme deck if it’s on top of your scheme deck and turn it face up if it isn’t face up. That scheme is considered to have been set in motion even if neither of these actions was performed on it.


701.25c Schemes may only be set in motion one at a time. If a player is instructed to set multiple schemes in motion, that player sets a scheme in motion that many times.


701.26. Abandon


701.26a Only a face-up ongoing scheme card may be abandoned, and only during an Archenemy game. See rule 314, “Schemes,” and rule 904, “Archenemy.”


701.26b To abandon a scheme, turn it face down and put it on the bottom of its owner’s scheme deck.


701.27. Proliferate


701.27a To proliferate means to choose any number of permanents and/or players that have a counter, then give each one additional counter of each kind that permanent or player already has.


701.27b In a Two-Headed Giant game, poison counters are shared by the team. If more than one player on a team is chosen this way, only one of those players can be given an additional poison counter. The player who proliferates chooses which player that is. See rule 810, “Two-Headed Giant Variant.”


701.28. Transform


701.28a To transform a permanent, turn it over so that its other face is up. Only transforming tokens and permanents represented by transforming double-faced cards can transform. (See rule 712, “Double-Faced Cards.”)


701.28b Although transforming a permanent uses the same physical action as turning a permanent face up or face down, they are different game actions. Abilities that trigger when a permanent is turned face down won’t trigger when that permanent transforms, and so on.


701.28c If a spell or ability instructs a player to transform a permanent that isn’t represented by a transforming token or a transforming double-faced card, nothing happens.


701.28d If a spell or ability instructs a player to transform a permanent, and the face that permanent would transform into is represented by an instant or sorcery card face, or is a transforming token that was created with an instant or sorcery face, nothing happens.


701.28e Some triggered abilities trigger when an object “transforms into” an object with a specified characteristic. Such an ability triggers if the object either transforms or converts (see rule 701.50) and has the specified characteristic immediately after it does so.


701.28f If an activated or triggered ability of a permanent that isn’t a delayed triggered ability of that permanent tries to transform it, the permanent does so only if it hasn’t transformed or converted since the ability was put onto the stack. If a delayed triggered ability of a permanent tries to transform that permanent, the permanent does so only if it hasn’t transformed or converted since that delayed triggered ability was created. In both cases, if the permanent has already transformed or converted, an instruction to do either is ignored.


701.28g Some spells and abilities refer to a “transformed permanent.” This phrase refers to a permanent on the battlefield with its back face up that’s also a transforming double-faced card or a transforming token. A permanent with its front face up is never considered a transformed permanent, even if it had its back face up previously.


701.29. Detain


701.29a Certain spells and abilities can detain a permanent. Until the next turn of the controller of that spell or ability, that permanent can’t attack or block and its activated abilities can’t be activated.


701.30. Populate


701.30a To populate means to choose a creature token you control and create a token that’s a copy of that creature token.


701.30b If you control no creature tokens when instructed to populate, you won’t create a token.


701.31. Monstrosity


701.31a “Monstrosity N” means “If this permanent isn’t monstrous, put N +1/+1 counters on it and it becomes monstrous.”


701.31b Monstrous is a designation that has no rules meaning other than to act as a marker that the monstrosity action and other spells and abilities can identify. Only permanents can be or become monstrous. Once a permanent becomes monstrous, it stays monstrous until it leaves the battlefield. Monstrous is neither an ability nor part of the permanent’s copiable values.


701.31c If a permanent’s ability instructs a player to “monstrosity X,” other abilities of that permanent may also refer to X. The value of X in those abilities is equal to the value of X as that permanent became monstrous.


701.32. Vote

 

701.32a Some spells and abilities instruct players to vote for one choice from a list of options to determine some aspect of the effect of that spell or ability. To vote, each player, starting with a specified player and proceeding in turn order, chooses one of those choices.


701.32b The listed choices may be objects, words with no rules meaning that are each connected to a different effect, or other variables relevant to the resolution of the spell or ability.


701.32c If the text of a spell or ability refers to “voting,” it refers only to an actual vote, not to any spell or ability that involves the players making choices or decisions without using the word “vote.”


701.32d If an effect gives a player multiple votes, those votes all happen at the same time the player would otherwise have voted.


701.33. Bolster


701.33a “Bolster N” means “Choose a creature you control with the least toughness or tied for least toughness among creatures you control. Put N +1/+1 counters on that creature.”


701.34. Manifest


701.34a To manifest a card, turn it face down. It becomes a 2/2 face-down creature card with no text, no name, no subtypes, and no mana cost. Put that card onto the battlefield face down. That permanent is a manifested permanent for as long as it remains face down. The effect defining its characteristics works while the card is face down and ends when it’s turned face up.


701.34b Any time you have priority, you may turn a manifested permanent you control face up. This is a special action that doesn’t use the stack (see rule 116.2b). To do this, show all players that the card representing that permanent is a creature card and what that card’s mana cost is, pay that cost, then turn the permanent face up. The effect defining its characteristics while it was face down ends, and it regains its normal characteristics. (If the card representing that permanent isn’t a creature card or it doesn’t have a mana cost, it can’t be turned face up this way.)


701.34c If a card with morph is manifested, its controller may turn that card face up using either the procedure described in rule 702.37e to turn a face-down permanent with morph face up or the procedure described above to turn a manifested permanent face up.


701.34d If a card with disguise is manifested, its controller may turn that card face up using either the procedure described in rule 702.168d to turn a face-down permanent with disguise face up or the procedure described above to turn a manifested permanent face up.


701.34e If an effect instructs a player to manifest multiple cards from their library, those cards are manifested one at a time.


701.34f If an effect instructs a player to manifest a card and a rule or effect prohibits the face-down object from entering the battlefield, that card isn’t manifested. Its characteristics remain unmodified and it remains in its previous zone. If it was face up, it remains face up.


701.34g If a manifested permanent that’s represented by an instant or sorcery card would turn face up, its controller reveals it and leaves it face down. Abilities that trigger whenever a permanent is turned face up won’t trigger.


701.34h See rule 708, “Face-Down Spells and Permanents,” for more information.


701.35. Support


701.35a “Support N” on a permanent means “Put a +1/+1 counter on each of up to N other target creatures.” “Support N” on an instant or sorcery spell means “Put a +1/+1 counter on each of up to N target creatures.”


701.36. Investigate


701.36a “Investigate” means “Create a Clue token.” See rule 111.10f.


701.37. Meld


701.37a Meld is a keyword action that appears in an ability on one card in a meld pair. To meld the two cards in a meld pair, put them onto the battlefield with their back faces up and combined. The resulting permanent is a single object represented by two cards. See rule 712, “Double-Faced Cards.”


701.37b Only two cards belonging to the same meld pair can be melded. Tokens, cards that aren’t meld cards, or meld cards that don’t form a meld pair can’t be melded.


701.37c If an effect instructs a player to meld objects that can’t be melded, they stay in their current zone.

Example: A player owns and controls Midnight Scavengers and a token that’s a copy of Graf Rats. At the beginning of combat, both are exiled but can’t be melded. Midnight Scavengers remains exiled and the exiled token ceases to exist.


701.38. Goad


701.38a Certain spells and abilities can goad a creature. Until the next turn of the controller of that spell or ability, that creature is goaded.


701.38b Goaded is a designation a permanent can have. A goaded creature attacks each combat if able and attacks a player other than the controller of the permanent, spell, or ability that caused it to be goaded if able. Goaded is neither an ability nor part of the permanent’s copiable values.


701.38c A creature can be goaded by multiple players. Doing so creates additional combat requirements.


701.38d Once a player has goaded a creature, the same player goading it again has no effect. Doing so doesn’t create additional combat requirements.


701.39. Exert


701.39a To exert a permanent, you choose to have it not untap during your next untap step.


701.39b A permanent can be exerted even if it’s not tapped or has already been exerted in a turn. If you exert a permanent more than once before your next untap step, each effect causing it not to untap expires during the same untap step.


701.39c An object that isn’t on the battlefield can’t be exerted.


701.39d “You may exert [this creature] as it attacks” is an optional cost to attack (see rule 508.1g). Some objects with this static ability have a triggered ability that triggers “when you do” printed in the same paragraph. These abilities are linked. (See rule 607.2h.)


701.40. Explore


701.40a Certain abilities instruct a permanent to explore. To do so, that permanent’s controller reveals the top card of their library. If a land card is revealed this way, that player puts that card into their hand. Otherwise, that player puts a +1/+1 counter on the exploring permanent and may put the revealed card into their graveyard.


701.40b A permanent “explores” after the process described in rule 701.40a is complete, even if some or all of those actions were impossible.


701.40c If a permanent changes zones before an effect causes it to explore, its last known information is used to determine which object explored and who controlled it.


701.41. Assemble


701.41a Assemble is a keyword action in the Unstable set that puts Contraptions onto the battlefield. Outside of silver-bordered cards, only one card (Steamflogger Boss) refers to assembling a Contraption. Cards and mechanics from the Unstable set aren’t included in these rules. See the Unstable FAQ for more information.


701.42. Surveil


701.42a To “surveil N” means to look at the top N cards of your library, then put any number of them into your graveyard and the rest on top of your library in any order.


701.42b If an effect allows you to look at additional cards while you surveil, those cards are included among the cards you may put into your graveyard and on top of your library in any order.


701.42c If a player is instructed to surveil 0, no surveil event occurs. Abilities that trigger whenever a player surveils won’t trigger.


701.42d An ability that triggers whenever a player surveils triggers after the process described in rule 701.42a is complete, even if some or all of those actions were impossible.


701.43. Adapt


701.43a “Adapt N” means “If this permanent has no +1/+1 counters on it, put N +1/+1 counters on it.”


701.44. Amass


701.44a To amass [subtype] N means “If you don’t control an Army creature, create a 0/0 black [subtype] Army creature token. Choose an Army creature you control. Put N +1/+1 counters on that creature. If it isn’t a [subtype], it becomes a [subtype] in addition to its other types.”


701.44b A player “amassed” after the process described in rule 701.44a is complete, even if some or all of those actions were impossible.


701.44c The phrases “the Army you amassed” and “the amassed Army” refer to the creature you chose, whether or not it received counters.


701.44d Some older cards were printed with amass N without including a subtype. Those cards have received errata in the Oracle card reference so that they read “amass Zombies N.”


701.45. Learn


701.45a “Learn” means “You may discard a card. If you do, draw a card. If you didn’t discard a card, you may reveal a Lesson card you own from outside the game and put it into your hand.”


701.46. Venture into the Dungeon


701.46a If a player is instructed to venture into the dungeon while they don’t own a dungeon card in the command zone, they choose a dungeon card they own from outside the game and put it into the command zone. They put their venture marker on the topmost room. See rule 309, “Dungeons.”


701.46b If a player is instructed to venture into the dungeon while their venture marker is in any room except a dungeon card’s bottommost room, they choose an adjacent room, following the direction of an arrow pointing away from their current room. If there are multiple arrows pointing away from the room the player’s venture marker is in, they choose one of them to follow. They move their venture marker to that adjacent room.


701.46c If a player is instructed to venture into the dungeon while their venture marker is in the bottommost room of a dungeon card, they remove that dungeon card from the game. Doing so causes the player to complete that dungeon (see rule 309.7). They then choose an appropriate dungeon card they own from outside the game, put it into the command zone, and put their venture marker on the topmost room of that dungeon.


701.46d Venture into [quality] is a variant of venture into the dungeon. If a player is instructed to “venture into [quality]” while they don’t own a dungeon card in the command zone, they choose a dungeon card they own from outside the game with the indicated quality and put it into the command zone. They put their venture marker on the topmost room of that dungeon. If they already own a dungeon card in the command zone, they follow the normal procedure for venturing into the dungeon outlined in 701.46b–c.


701.47. Connive


701.47a Certain abilities instruct a permanent to connive. To do so, that permanent’s controller draws a card, then discards a card. If a nonland card is discarded this way, that player puts a +1/+1 counter on the conniving permanent.


701.47b A permanent “connives” after the process described in rule 701.47a is complete, even if some or all of those actions were impossible.


701.47c If a permanent changes zones before an effect causes it to connive, its last known information is used to determine which object connived and who controlled it.


701.47d If multiple permanents are instructed to connive at the same time, the first player in APNAP order who controls one or more of those permanents chooses one of them and it connives. Then if any permanents remain on the battlefield which have been instructed to connive and have not done so, this process is repeated.


701.47e Connive N is a variant of connive. The permanent’s controller draws N cards, discards N cards, then puts a number of +1/+1 counters on the permanent equal to the number of nonland cards discarded this way.


701.48. Open an Attraction


701.48a A player may open an Attraction only during a game in which that player is playing with an Attraction deck (see rule 717, “Attraction Cards”).


701.48b To open an Attraction, move the top card of your Attraction deck off the Attraction deck, turn it face up, and put it onto the battlefield under your control.


701.48c An ability which triggers whenever a player opens an Attraction triggers when that player puts an Attraction card onto the battlefield while performing the instruction in the above rule. If an effect prevents that Attraction from entering the battlefield or replaces entering the battlefield with another event, that ability doesn’t trigger.


701.49. Roll to Visit Your Attractions


701.49a To roll to visit your Attractions, roll a six-sided die. Then if you control one or more Attractions with a number lit up that is equal to that result, each of those Attractions has been “visited” and its visit ability triggers. See rule 717, “Attraction Cards,” and rule 702.159, “Visit.”


701.50. Convert


701.50a To convert a permanent, turn it so that its other face is up. This follows rules 701.28a–f, 712.9–10, and 712.18. Those rules apply to converting a permanent just as they apply to transforming a permanent.


701.50b Although converting a permanent uses the same physical action as turning a permanent face up or face down, they are different game actions. Abilities that trigger when a permanent is turned face down won’t trigger when that permanent converts, and so on.


701.50c If a spell or ability instructs a player to convert a permanent that isn’t represented by a transforming token or a transforming double-faced card, nothing happens.


701.50d If a spell or ability instructs a player to convert a permanent, and the face that permanent would convert into is represented by an instant or sorcery card face, or is a transforming token that was created with an instant or sorcery face, nothing happens.


701.50e If an activated or triggered ability of a permanent that isn’t a delayed triggered ability of that permanent tries to convert it, the permanent does so only if it hasn’t converted or transformed since the ability was put onto the stack. If a delayed triggered ability of a permanent tries to convert that permanent, the permanent does so only if it hasn’t converted or transformed since that delayed triggered ability was created. In both cases, if the permanent has already transformed or converted, an instruction to do either is ignored.


701.50f If a spell or ability states that a permanent can’t transform, that permanent also can’t convert.


701.51. Incubate


701.51a To incubate N, create an Incubator token that enters the battlefield with N +1/+1 counters on it. See rule 111.10i.


701.51b An Incubator token is a transforming double-faced token. Its front face is a colorless Incubator artifact with “{2}: Transform this artifact.” Its back face is a 0/0 colorless Phyrexian artifact creature named “Phyrexian Token.”


701.52. The Ring Tempts You


701.52a Certain spells and abilities have the text “the Ring tempts you.” Each time the Ring tempts you, choose a creature you control. That creature becomes your Ring-bearer until another creature becomes your Ring-bearer or another player gains control of it.


701.52b Ring-bearer is a designation a permanent can have. Being a Ring-bearer is not a copiable value.


701.52c If a player doesn’t have an emblem named The Ring at the time the Ring tempts them, they get an emblem named The Ring before choosing a creature to be their Ring-bearer. The Ring has “Your Ring-bearer is legendary and can’t be blocked by creatures with greater power.” As long as the Ring has tempted that player two or more times, it has “Whenever your Ring-bearer attacks, draw a card, then discard a card.” As long as the Ring has tempted that player three or more times, it has “Whenever your Ring-bearer becomes blocked by a creature, the blocking creature’s controller sacrifices it at end of combat.” As long as the Ring has tempted that player four or more times, it has “Whenever your Ring-bearer deals combat damage to a player, each opponent loses 3 life.”


701.52d Some abilities trigger “Whenever the Ring tempts you.” The Ring tempts a player whenever they complete the actions in 701.52a, even if some or all of those actions were impossible.


701.52e Some abilities check to see if a creature “is your Ring-bearer.” For the purposes of those abilities, that condition is true if that creature is on the battlefield under your control and has the Ring-bearer designation.


701.53. Face a Villainous Choice


701.53a “[A player] faces a villainous choice — [option A], or [option B]” means “[A player] chooses [option A] or [option B]. Then all actions in the chosen option are performed.”


701.53b While facing a villainous choice, a player may choose an option that is illegal or impossible. In that case, they perform as much of the action as is possible. This is an exception to rule 608.2d.


701.53c A replacement effect may replace an instruction to face a villainous choice with an instruction to face that choice some number of additional times. In that case, the entire process described in rule 701.53a is performed for that player the appropriate number of times one at a time.


701.53d If more than one player is instructed to face a villainous choice, the entire process described in rule 701.53a is performed for each of those players one at a time in APNAP order. This is an exception to rule 608.2e.


701.54. Time Travel


701.54a To time travel means to choose any number of permanents you control with one or more time counters on them and/or suspended cards you own in exile with one or more time counters on them and, for each of those objects, put a time counter on it or remove a time counter from it. See rule 702.62, “Suspend.”


701.55. Discover


701.55a “Discover N” means “Exile cards from the top of your library until you exile a nonland card with mana value N or less. You may cast that card without paying its mana cost if the resulting spell’s mana value is less than or equal to N. If you don’t cast it, put that card into your hand. Put the remaining exiled cards on the bottom of your library in a random order.”


701.55b A player has “discovered” after the process described in 701.55a is complete, even if some or all of those actions were impossible.


701.55c If the final card exiled during the process described in rule 701.55a has mana value N or less, it is the “discovered card,” regardless of whether it was cast or put into a player’s hand.


701.56. Cloak


701.56a To cloak a card, turn it face down. It becomes a 2/2 face-down creature card with ward {2}, no name, no subtypes, and no mana cost. Put that card onto the battlefield face down. That permanent is a cloaked permanent for as long as it remains face down. The effect defining its characteristics works while the card is face down and ends when it’s turned face up.


701.56b Any time you have priority, you may turn a cloaked permanent you control face up. This is a special action that doesn’t use the stack (see rule 116.2b). To do this, show all players that the card representing that permanent is a creature card and what that card’s mana cost is, pay that cost, then turn the permanent face up. The effect defining its characteristics while it was face down ends, and it regains its normal characteristics. (If the card representing that permanent isn’t a creature card or it doesn’t have a mana cost, it can’t be turned face up this way.)


701.56c If a card with morph is cloaked, its controller may turn that card face up using either the procedure described in rule 702.37e to turn a face-down permanent with morph face up or the procedure described above to turn a cloaked permanent face up.


701.56d If a card with disguise is cloaked, its controller may turn that card face up using either the procedure described in rule 702.168d to turn a face-down permanent with disguise face up or the procedure described above to turn a cloaked permanent face up.


701.56e If an effect instructs a player to cloak multiple cards from a single library, those cards are cloaked one at a time.


701.56f If an effect instructs a player to cloak a card and a rule or effect prohibits the face-down object from entering the battlefield, that card isn’t cloaked. Its characteristics remain unmodified and it remains in its previous zone. If it was face up, it remains face up.


701.56g If a cloaked permanent that’s represented by an instant or sorcery card would turn face up, its controller reveals it and leaves it face down. Abilities that trigger whenever a permanent is turned face up won’t trigger.


701.56h See rule 708, “Face-Down Spells and Permanents,” for more information.


701.57. Collect Evidence


701.57a To “collect evidence N” means to exile any number of cards from your graveyard with total mana value N or greater.


701.57b If a player is given the choice to collect evidence but is unable to exile cards with total mana value N or greater from their graveyard (usually because there aren’t enough cards to do so) they can’t choose to collect evidence.


701.57c A spell that has an ability that allows a player to collect evidence as an additional cost to cast it may have another ability that refers to whether evidence was collected. These abilities are linked. See rule 607, “Linked Abilities.”


701.58. Suspect


701.58a Certain spells and abilities instruct a player to suspect a creature. That creature becomes suspected until it leaves the battlefield or until a spell or ability causes it to no longer be suspected.


701.58b Suspected is a designation a permanent can have. Only permanents can have the suspected designation. Suspected is neither an ability nor part of the permanent’s copiable values.


701.58c A suspected permanent has menace and “This creature can’t block” for as long as it’s suspected.


701.58d A suspected permanent can’t become suspected again.


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